This is the online bibliography for Natural History of Pacific Northwest Mountains. The Recommended Reading on page 550 of the printed Natural History of PNW Mountains lists the books I recommend most strongly, whereas this online bibliography is mainly for scientific articles.
Its primary purpose is to give credit to the many brilliant scientists who supplied hard data that went into the book. Secondarily, it offers leads to any readers who may be looking for more scientific detail. Many of these papers can be downloaded via Google Scholar. I recommend going to Advanced Search, writing a chunk of the title in the “exact phrase” field and searching for it “all in title.”
Of course, it wasn’t possible to provide citations for every single bit of info. You will find that to some extent I’ve selected the science that I think of as “recent findings”—science that has not yet been repeated for decades in reference materials, including other field guides. While I list relatively recent papers preferentially, you’ll still see plenty of 20- or even 30-year-old papers listed here, ones I especially want to acknowledge. At the other extreme are some papers from 2016 and even 2017—to late to make it into the book; they tend to be updated versions of papers that did, making them the most useful for you to look up.
I also tried to include citations here for each case where my book quotes directly or refers specifically to a “study” or a “scientist who found…” There are a couple of those I’ve lost track of, but I’ll keep trying to relocate them.
[Please excuse small inconsistencies in citation style; they allowed this digital scrivener’s task to go a little faster.]

Chapter: Naming
p 12 “Linnaean ranked branches are a terrible fit for the real tree of life”
Mishler, Brent D. 2009. Three centuries of paradigm changes in biological classification: Is the end in sight? Taxon 58:61-67.
p 12 “dropped the notion of rank having any absolute meaning”
Stevens, Peter F. (2001 onwards). Introduction, in Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, April 2015.
p 13 “the smallest population or group of populations”
Cracraft, Joel. 1997. Species concepts in systematics and conservation biology—an ornithological viewpoint. Pp. 325–340 in Species: the units of biodiversity (M. F. Claridge, H. A. Dawah, and M. R. Wilson, eds.). Chapman & Hall, London.
p 13 “a necessary but temporary phenomenon”
Dorn, Robert D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming. 3rd Ed. Cheyenne: Mtn West.
p 13 “folk taxonomy weakening 21st-century science”
Cotterill, F. P. D., et al. 2014. Why One Century of Phenetics is Enough: Response to “Are There Really Twice As Many Bovid Species As We Thought?” Systematic Biology 63(5): 819–832
p 15 “standard committee-revised checklists”
These are listed on page 549 of the published Natural History of PNW Mountains.
p 15 “Fungal morphology is… a stunningly poor predictor of lineage
Printzen, C., 2010. Lichen systematics: the role of morphological and molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. In Progress in Botany 71 (pp. 233-275). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
p 15 “It may be more fruitful…”
Money, Nicholas P. 2013. Against the naming of fungi. Fungal Biology 117: 463-465.
p 16Colorado Flora argues”
Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 2001. Colorado Flora. Two Vols.; 3rd. Ed. Boulder: Univ Press of CO.

Chapter: Landscape
(This chapter has a lot of geology; I’m putting most geologic bibliography under the Geology chapter, near the end of this bibliography.)
p 17 “boundaries delimit the new Flora of the Pacific Northwest.”
The University of WA Herbarium is producing a new manual for Pacific Northwest vascular plants, based on Flora of the Pacific Northwest by Hitchcock and Cronquist. They have posted a nice range map with explanations here: (as of 1/2/2017).
p 19 “selective browsing by elk, and cobbly soils frequently overhauled by the rivers”
Schreiner, E.G., et al. 1996. Understory patch dynamics and ungulate herbivory in old-growth forests of Olympic NP, WA. Canadian J. Forest Res. 26(2): 255-265.
Van Pelt, Robert, et al. 2006. Riparian forest stand development along the Queets river in Olympic NP, WA. Ecol. Monog. 76(2): 277-298.
p 20 “Rainforests of the coastal side have seen few fires”
Gavin, Daniel G., Linda B. Brubaker, and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2003. An 1800-year record of the spatial and temporal distribution of fire from the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Canadian J. Forest Research 33: 573–586
p 20 “a lion’s share of champion trees”
Van Pelt, Robert. 2001. Forest Giants of the Pacific Coast. Seattle: Univ of WA Press.
Frequently updated info on champions can be found at
p 23 “The similar peak heights are attributed to a glacial erosion ‘buzzsaw’”
Mitchell, Sara Gran, and David R. Montgomery. 2006. Influence of a glacial buzzsaw on the height and morphology of the Cascade Range in central WA. Quaternary Research 65(1): 96-107.
p 24 “Great Bear Rainforest was substantially protected from logging by a 2006”
Smith, Julian. 2016. How to Save a Rainforest. BioGraphic [online]; CA Academy of Scince.
p 25 “In several North Cascades valleys“
Riedel, Jon L, Ralph Haugerud, and J.J. Clague. 2007. Geomorphology of a Cordilleran Ice Sheet drainage network through breached divides in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington and British Columbia. Geomorphology 91: 1–18.
p 25 “The Skagit offers a grand example of such a drainage reversal.”
Simon-Labric, Thibaud, et al. 2014. Low-temperature thermochronologic signature of range-divide migration and breaching in the North Cascades. Lithosphere 6(6): 473-482.
p 25 “a Fraser River that also reversed its direction”
Graham D.M. Andrews, et al. 2012. Pleistocene reversal of the Fraser River, British Columbia. Geology 40: 111-114
p 26 “Vancouver Island has wave terraces”
James, Thomas, et al. 2009. Sea-level change and paleogeographic reconstructions, southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 1200–1216.
A more recent article argues that our seashore’s ups and downs since the ice age have been highly localized because they are controlled more by subduction and earthquakes than by isostatic rebound:
Shugar, Dan H., et al. 2014. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 97: 170-192.
p 30 “area east of Ross Lake”
Riedel, Jon L, Ralph Haugerud, and J.J. Clague. 2007. Geomorphology of a Cordilleran Ice Sheet drainage network through breached divides in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington and British Columbia. Geomorphology 91: 1–18.
p 30 “Missoula Floods”
Of several good books on the floods, I especially recommend:
Allen, John Eliot, M. Burns, and S. Burns. 2009. Cataclysms on the Columbia: The Great Missoula Floods. Rev. ed. Portland, OR: Ooligan.
p 30 “given that early Americans” On the earliest artifacts from southern OR:
Jenkins, D.L., et al. 2012. Clovis age western stemmed projectile points and human coprolites at the Paisley Caves. Science 337, 223-228.
Stay tuned for possible earlier evidence. In March of 2015, University of Oregon archaelogists issued a press release on a find that they described as a 15,800-year-old scraper. They have not published any such findings yet in scientific journals, so I’m considering this one a long shot.
The question of whether early Americans saw the floods is addressed directly by Richard Waitt (2016) who concludes that they were not around here in time to see the last flood from Lake Missoula, but they were around for later, smaller megafloods that came down the Columbia from one or more other glacial lakes, most likely Glacial Lake Kootenai in British Columbia. Where those late floods came from is not at all settled, though. For example, Hanson and Clague (2016) attribute floods from around 13,400 years ago to Lake Missoula. Though they disagree as to origin, these papers agree that the late floods were much smaller than some earlier ones.
Waitt, R.B. 2016. Megafloods and Clovis cache at Wenatchee, WA. Quaternary Research 85: 430-444.
Hanson, Michelle A., and John J. Clague, 2016. Record of glacial Lake Missoula floods in glacial Lake Columbia, Washington. Quaternary Science Reviews 133: 62-76.
For two perspectives of flood timing, including the ones from earlier ice ages:
Hanson, Michelle A., O. B. Lian, and J. J. Clague. 2012. The sequence and timing of large late Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula. Quaternary Science Reviews 31: 67-81.
Gombiner, Joel H., et al. 2016. Isotopic and elemental evidence for Scabland Flood sediments offshore Vancouver Island. Quaternary Science Reviews 139: 129-137.
p 31 “Palouse Loess”
Sweeney, Mark R., David R. Gaylord, and Alan J. Busacca. 2007. Evolution of Eureka Flat: A dust-producing engine of the Palouse loess, USA. Quaternary International 162–163: 76–96.
p 31 “British Columbia had glacial lakes and catastrophic floods”
Peters, Jared Lee. 2012. Late Pleistocene evolution of glacial Lake Purcell: a potential floodwater source to the Channeled Scabland. Master’s Thesis, Simon Fraser Univ.
The idea had been proposed by Richard Waitt at a geology conference:
Waitt, Richard B. 2009. Routes to Wenatchee of Columbia valley megafloods from glacial Lake Missoula and other sources. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 41(5), 33.
Speculation about these was provoked especially by Shaw (1999) but that paper’s details about the Missoula Floods have not been well accepted.
Shaw, John, et al. 1999. The Channeled Scabland: back to Bretz? Geology 27(7): 605–08.
Waitt, R.B. 2016. Megafloods and Clovis cache at Wenatchee, WA. Quaternary Research 85: 430-444.

Chapter: Climate
p 34 “a lenticular (lentil-shaped) cloud”
Lenticular is usually defined as lens-shaped. Well, okay, fair enough. But the Latin word lens originally meant lentil, which then, once lenses were invented, suggested a word for lenses.
p 35 “Mauri Pelto calculates that that season’s snowfall”
Pelto, Mauri S. 2000. Summer Snowpack Variations with Altitude on Mount Baker, Washington, 1990–1999: A Comparison with Record 1998/1999 Snowfall. Paper presented at 57th EASTERN SNOW CONFERENCE Syracuse, NY.
My humble apologies to Mauri for misspelling his name!!
p 40 “Future Climate”
Mote, P., et al. 2014: Ch. 21: Northwest. In Climate Change Impacts in the US: Third National Climate Assessment, J.M. Melillo, T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 487-513.
Dalton, M.M., P.W. Mote, and A.K. Snover, Eds. 2013. Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Mote, Philip W., and Eric P. Salathé Jr. 2010. Future climate in the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 102 (1-2): 29-50.

Dalton, M.M., K.D. Dello, L. Hawkins, P.W. Mote, and D.E. Rump. 2017. The Third Oregon Climate Assessment Report, Oregon Climate Change Research Institute, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, OSU, Corvallis, OR.

p 41 “most snow may fall during occasional extreme events”

Lute, A. C., J. T. Abatzoglou, and K. C. Hegewisch. 2015. Projected changes in snowfall extremes and interannual variability of snowfall in the western US. Water Resources Research 51: 960–972.
p 41 “Subalpine meadow as we know it is likely to shrink.”
Jackson, Michelle M., et al, 2016. Expansion of subalpine woody vegetation over 40 years on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada. Canadian J. Forest Research 46(3): 437-443.
Zald, Harold S., Thomas Spies, M. Huso, and D. Gatziolis, 2012. Climatic, landform, microtopographic, and overstory canopy controls of tree invasion in a subalpine meadow landscape, OR Cascades, USA. Landscape ecology 27(8): 1197-1212.
p 42 “Weeds are winners”
Parks, Catherine G., et al., 2005. Natural and land-use history of the Northwest mountain ecoregions (USA) in relation to patterns of plant invasions. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 7(3): 137-158.
p 42 “Glaciers are losing out”
Clarke, Garry K.C., et al. 2015. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience 8: 372-377.
Riedel, Jon L., et al. 2015. Glacier status and contribution to streamflow in the Olympic Mountains, WA, USA. Journal of Glaciology 61 (225): 8-16.
Riedel, J., and M. A. Larrabee. 2011. North Cascades National Park Complex glacier mass balance monitoring annual report, Water year 2009. North Coast and Cascades Network. Natural Res. Tech. Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2011/483. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. (as of 1/4/2017)
p 42 “Fire will be a winner”
Westerling, Anthony L., 2016. Increasing western US forest wildfire activity: sensitivity to changes in the timing of spring. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, 371(1696) p.20150178.
Littell, Jeremy S., et al. 2009. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916–2003. Ecological Applications 19(4): 1003–1021.
p 42 “air quality a loser.”
Yue, Xu, et al., 2013. Ensemble projections of wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations over the western US in the mid-21st century. Atmospheric Environment 77: 767-780.
p 42 “Atmospheric rivers… are projected to increase”
Warner, M.D., C.F. Mass, and E.P. Salathé. 2015. Changes in Winter Atmospheric Rivers along the North American West Coast in CMIP5 Climate Models. Journal of Hydrometeorology 16 (1): 118-128
p 42 “Plants in general may be able to grow faster” See p 52, below.
p 43 “Northwest… forests may tie up carbon in biomass better”
Shafer, S.L., et al. 2010. The potential effects of climate change on Oregon’s vegetation. OR Climate Change Research Institute: Oregon Climate Assessment Report. College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, OSU, Corvallis, pp.173-208.
p 43 “wood in our soils takes centuries to decompose”
Harmon, Mark E., et al. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in ecological research 15: 133-302.
Maser, C. and Trappe, J.M., 1984. The seen and unseen world of the fallen tree. USDA Forest Service, PNW Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report PNW-164.

Chapter: Conifers
p 46 “biomass… per acre, are the world’s highest”
Smithwick, Erica AH, Mark E. Harmon, Suzanne M. Remillard, Steven A. Acker, and Jerry F. Franklin. 2002. Potential upper bounds of carbon stores in forests of the PNW. Ecological Applications 12(5): 1303-1317.
Hudiburg, Tara, Beverly Law, David P. Turner, John Campbell, Dan Donato, and Maureen Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land‐based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19(1): 163-180.
p 46 “we should manage forests to maximize carbon storage”
Hudiburg, Tara W., Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Peter E. Thornton, and Beverly E. Law. 2013. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions. Env. Sci. & Technology 47(22): 13132-13140.
p 47 “forests just like our ancient forests have only existed”
Gavin, Daniel G., and Linda B. Brubaker. 2015. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Environmental Change on the Olympic Peninsula, WA. Ecological Studies Volume 223. New York: Springer.
p 48 “untrue in most of coastal British Columbia”
Gavin, Daniel G., Linda B. Brubaker, and Kenneth P. Lertzman. 2003. An 1800-year record of the spatial and temporal distribution of fire from the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Canadian J. Forest Research. 33: 573–586
p 49 “At its most intense, the Biscuit Fire”
Bormann, Bernard T., et al. 2008. Intense forest wildfire sharply reduces mineral soil C and N: the first direct evidence. Canadian J. Forest Research. 38(11): 2771-2783.
P 49 “that regime shift is likely to wait for a fire”
Littell, Jeremy S., et al. 2009. Forest Ecosystems, Disturbance, and Climatic Change in Washington State, USA. In The Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment, ed. M. McGuire Elsner, J. Littell, and L Whitely Binder, 255-284. Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans, U. of WA, Seattle, WA.
p 50 “extensive fires between 1448 and 1625”
Tepley, Alan J., Frederick J. Swanson, and Thomas A. Spies. 2013. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the PNW, USA. Ecology 94(8): 1729-1743.
Poage, N. J., Weisberg, P. J., et al. 2009. Influences of climate, fire, and topography on contemporary age structure patterns of Douglas-fir at 205 old forest sites in western Oregon. Canadian J. Forest Research. 39(8): 1518-1530.
Weisberg, Peter J., and Frederick J. Swanson. 2003. Regional synchroneity in fire regimes of western OR and WA, USA. Forest Ecol. and Management 172: 17-28.
(The synchroneity looks reasonable in western OR, but Weisberg and Swanson’s inclusion of WA is very thinly supported, and there’s contrary evidence in, for example, Henderson, Jan A., et al. 1989. Field Guide to the Forested Plant Associations of the Olympic N.F. USDA For. Serv. Tech. Paper R6 ECOL TP 001-88.)
p 50 “whether they were caused by lightning or Native Americans”
Walsh, Megan K., et al. 2015. A regional perspective on holocene fire–climate–human interactions in the PNW of NA. Annals of the Assoc. of Am. Geographers 105(6): 1135-1157.
p 50 “long-term fire study in the lower [Olympic] mountains”
Gavin, Daniel G., Linda B. Brubaker, and D. Noah Greenwald. 2013. Postglacial climate and fire‐mediated vegetation change on the western Olympic Peninsula, WA (USA). Ecol. Monographs 83(4): 471-489.
p 50-51 “The Paradise Fire persisted… in the form of mosses and lichens smoldering”
Coles, Janet J. 2016. Personal communication.
p 51 “a view that west-side forests should be managed”
Johnson, K. Norman, and Jerry F. Franklin. 2009. Restoration of Federal forests in the Pacific Northwest: strategies and management implications. Unpublished manuscript. Summary available online at
p 51 “cycles of sudden warming that may have been at least as fast”
Williams, John W., Jessica L. Blois, and Bryan N. Shuman. 2011. Extrinsic and intrinsic forcing of abrupt ecological change: case studies from the late Quaternary. Journal of Ecology 99(3): 664-677.
p 51 “climate envelope studies”
Rehfeldt, Gerald E., et al. 2014 Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: Realized climate niches. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 324: 126-137.
The following study tackles similar predictions but avoids using climate niche methods per se:
Coops, Nicholas C., and Richard H. Waring. 2011. Estimating the vulnerability of fifteen tree species under changing climate in Northwest North America. Ecological Modelling 222(13): 2119-2129.
p 52 “western larch can be planted”
Rehfeldt, Gerald E., and Barry C. Jaquish. 2010. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(3): 283-306.
p 52 “results are mixed as to whether they produce a net gain”
Swann, Abigail L., et al. 2016. Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 113(36):10019-10024.
Donohue, Randall J., et al. 2013. Impact of CO2 fertilization on maximum foliage cover across the globe’s warm, arid environments. Geophys. Res. Letters 40: 1-5.
Hember, Robbie A., et al. 2012. Accelerating regrowth of temperate-maritime forests due to environmental change. Global Change Biology 18: 2026–2040.
Gedalof, Z. E., & A. A. Berg. 2010. Tree ring evidence for limited direct CO2 fertilization of forests over the 20th century. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24(3).
Littell, Jeremy S., et al. 2009. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in Washington State, USA. Climatic Change 102: 129-158.
p 52 “Over a recent 30-year period, the percentage of trees dying”
Van Mantgem, Phillip J., et al. 2009. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323(5913): 521-524.
p 53 “partially countervailing studies”
Acker, Steven A., et al. 2015. Recent tree mortality and recruitment in mature and old-growth forests in western WA. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 336: 109-118.
Larson, Andrew J., and Jerry F. Franklin. 2010. The tree mortality regime in temperate old-growth coniferous forests: the role of physical damage. Canadian J. Forest Research 40(11): 2091-2103.
Hember, Robbie A., et al. 2012. Accelerating regrowth of temperate-maritime forests due to environmental change. Global Change Biology 18: 2026–2040.
p 54 “Two felled firs measured”
Parminter, John. 1996. A tale of a tree. British Columbia Forest History Newsletter 45: 1-4.
p 54 “A Doug-fir planted in New Zealand“
Waring, Richard, et al. 2008. Why is the productivity of Douglas-fir higher in New Zealand than in its native range in the PNW, USA? Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 255(12): 4040–4046.
p 56 “Douglas-fir moved into the Northwest fast 14,000 years ago”
Fossil pollen—even from 20,000-18,000 years ago, the low point—has been found at just a few lowland sites near the Willamette and lower Columbia.
Gugger, Paul F., and Shinya Sugita. 2010. Glacial populations and postglacial migration of Douglas-fir based on fossil pollen and macrofossil evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 29(17): 2052-2070.
p 57 “Distiller Steve McCarthy struggled with getting the intense”
McCarthy, Steve. 2009. The Pursuit and Pleasures of the Pure Spirit. New York Times March 13, 2009.
p 58 “pure hemlock stands produce biomass”
Fujimori, Takao, et al. 1976. Biomass and primary production in forests of three major vegetation zones of the northwestern United States. J. of the Japanese Forestry Soc. 58(10): 360-373.
p 69Flora of Oregon disagrees, treating those Oregon trees as white × grand hybrids”
Meyers, Stephen C., Thea Jaster, Katie E. Mitchell, and Linda K. Hardison, eds. 2015. Flora of Oregon. Volume 1: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Monocots. Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press.
p 72 “great diversity in the structure of canopies and trees”
Van Pelt, R., and N. M. Nadkarni. 2004. Development of canopy structure in Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the southern WA Cascades. Forest Science 50:326–341.
p 72 “but only happened in a fraction of today’s ancient forests”
Freund, J. A., J. F. Franklin, A. J. Larson, & J. A. Lutz 2014. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests. Canadian J. Forest Research 44(9), 1068-1078.
p 72 “trees may reach an absolute height limit”
Koch, G. W., S. C. Sillett, G. M. Jennings, & S. D. Davis (2004). The limits to tree height. Nature 428(6985), 851-854.
Koch and Sillett’s number seems more realistic to me than the theoretical limit of around 453 feet later published in a later study:
Domec, Jean-Christophe, et al. (2008). Maximum height in a conifer is associated with conflicting requirements for xylem design. Proceedings of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 105(33), 12069-12074.
p 73 “Thanks to reiterations and epicormic branching”
Van Pelt, R., and S.C. Sillett. 2008. Crown development of coastal Pseudotsuga menziesii, including a conceptual model for tall conifers. Ecol. Monographs 78, 283–311.
p 73-74 “Meandering across their floodplains, they topple groves”
Van Pelt, Robert, et al. 2006. Riparian forest stand development along the Queets river in Olympic NP, WA. Ecol. Monographs 76(2): 277-298.
Stolnack, Scott A., & R. J. Naiman(2010). Patterns of conifer establishment and vigor on montane river floodplains in Olympic NP, WA, USA. Canadian J. Forest Research 40(3), 410-422.
p 76 “Nurse Logs”
Stolnack and Naiman (ibid.) find in Olympic riparian zones that western hemlock is strongly dependent on nurse logs but sitka spruce much less so (and grand fir doesn’t grow on them at all.
“Mark Harmon, who has studied our nurse logs”
Harmon, M. E., & J. F. Franklin (1989). Tree Seedlings on Logs in Picea‐Tsuga Forests of Oregon and Washington. Ecology 70(1), 48-59.
p 76 “Sitka spruce is limited by its soil’s water-holding capacity. Soggy rotten logs offer moisture all summer long.” (This is my preferred explanation for nurse logs in the greatest number of cases, but especially on young river terrace soils.)
Stolnack and Naiman (2010) (op cit.) and
Sexton, J. M., & M. E. Harmon. 2009. Water dynamics in conifer logs in early stages of decay in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Northwest Science 83(2), 131-139.
p 79 “Taxol also shows promise for reducing spinal cord injury”
Hellal, Farida, et al. (2011). Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Science 331(6019), 928-931.
p 79 “Taxol appears to be a coproduction of yews and fungal endophytes” and paragraph
Kusari, S., S. Singh, & C. Jayabaskaran. 2014. Rethinking production of Taxol®(paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology. Trends in biotech. 32(6), 304-311.
Wagner, L. J., & H. E. Flores (1994). Effect of taxol and related compounds on growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopathology 84(10), 1173-1178.
p 79 “13th among all plant species in total cover in a big survey”
Dyrness, C. T., J. F. Franklin, & W. H. Moir. (1974). A preliminary classification of forest communities in the central portion of the western Cascades in Oregon. Seattle: Coniferous Forest Biome, Ecosystem Analysis Studies, US/IBP.
p 79 “orange yew shrubs on steep, burningly exposed southwest slopes”
Little Giant Trail, Glacier Peak Wilderness Area.
p 80 “Our drive of the forenoon”
H. K. Hines and R. Ketcham quoted in Peters, Harold J. 2008. Seven Months to Oregon: 1853. Tooele, Utah: Patrice Press.
p 81 “long pine needles dry out and persist as quick-flaring fine fuel”
Fonda, R. W., L. A. Belanger, & L. L Burley. (1998). Burning characteristics of western conifer needles. Northwest Science 72:1–9.
p 81 “they pose an alternative view of ponderosa pine ecology”
Baker, William L. 2012. Implications of spatially extensive historical data from surveys for restoring dry forests of Oregon’s eastern Cascades. Ecosphere 3(3), 1-39.
That paper has a few published rebuttals, including:
Hagmann, R. Keala, Jerry F. Franklin, and K. Norman Johnson. 2014. Historical conditions in mixed-conifer forests on the eastern slopes of the northern Oregon Cascade Range, USA. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 330: 158-170.
Fulé, Peter Z., and 18 others. 2014. Unsupported inferences of high‐severity fire in historical dry forests of the western US: response to Williams and Baker. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(7): 825-830.
p 82 “a clump of several pine seedlings within a square inch”
Linhart, Yan B., and Diana F. Tomback. 1985. Seed dispersal by nutcrackers causes multi-trunk growth form in pines. Oecologia 67(1): 107-110.
p 83 “paper devoted to explaining corkscrew trees”
Skatter, S. and B. Kucera, 1998. The cause of the prevalent directions of the spiral grain patterns in conifers. Trees 12(5), 265-273.
p 83 “Another hypothesis holds that spiral grain distributes sap”
Mitton, Jeff. 2005. Spiral Trees on Windy Ridges. The Daily Camera Sept. 23, 2005. (as of 1/6/16)
p 84 “The epidemic of mountain pine beetles”
“It is projected that at least 59% of the of the total merchantable lodgepole pine volume (age >60 years) in BC will be killed in this epidemic,” according to
Hawkins, C.D., A. Dhar, N.A. Balliet, and K.D. Runzer, 2012. Residual mature trees and secondary stand structure after mountain pine beetle attack in central BC. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 277: 107-115.
p 84 “Dana Perkins found some magnificent survivors”
Perkins, D.L. and T.W. Swetnam, 1996. A dendroecological assessment of whitebark pine in the Sawtooth-Salmon River region, Idaho. Canadian J. Forest Research. 26(12): 2123-2133.
p 84-85 “Whitebark pine nuts travel on adopted wings.”
Tomback, Diana F. 1998. Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). No. 331 in A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington DC. Diana Tomback was the first major investigator of this mutualism, and subsequently devoted her career to whitebark pines; so she has written a great many articles.
p 86 “When whitebark nuts are too scarce, nutcrackers migrate elsewhere”
Barringer, Lauren E., D.F. Tomback, M.B. Wunder, and S.T. McKinney. 2012. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark’s nutcracker. PLoS One 7(5), p.e37663.
p 86 “David Douglas counted the sugar pine”
October 26, 1826 in Douglas, David. Journal Kept by David Douglas 1823–1827. Reprinted 1959. New York: Antiquarian Press. [as of 2/15/17]
p 86 “Explaining the tree’s name, John Muir wrote”
Muir, John. 1894. The Mountains of California. Many editions available.
p 89 “an excellent candidate for planting both in and north of its present range”
Rehfeldt, Gerald E., and Barry C. Jaquish. 2010. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(3): 283-306.
p 90-94 Redcedar and Alaska Cedar in general
Harrington, Constance, A., tech. coord. 2010. A tale of two cedars – International symposium on western redcedar and yellow-cedar. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-828. Portland, OR: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, PNW Research Station.
p 90 “cedar is being logged disproportionately, and”
LePage, Phil, and Allen Banner. 2014. Long-term recovery of forest structure and composition after harvesting in the coastal temperate rainforests of northern BC. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 318: 250-260.
p 91 “Redcedar stood at the crux of Northwest Coast culture.” and
p 93 “Surprisingly, Northwest cultures have put redcedar to all these uses”
Hebda, Richard J., and Rolf W. Mathewes. 1984. Holocene history of cedar and native Indian cultures of the North American Pacific Coast. Science 225.4663: 711-713.
p 92 “old bong water” and the other similes to Alaska-cedar fragrance. (as of 9/7/17)
p 94 “Alaska cedar has been gradually dying off”
Hennon, Paul E., et al. 2012. Shifting climate, altered niche, and a dynamic conservation strategy for yellow-cedar in the North Pacific coastal rainforest. BioScience 62(2): 147-158.
p 94 “You can find four different genus names for this species”
Mao, Kangshan, et al. 2012. Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 109(20): 7793-7798.
Debreczy, Zsolt, et al. 2009. Relationships and nomenclatural status of the Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis, Cupressaceae). Phytologia 91: 140-159.

Chapter: Flowering Trees and Shrubs
p 98 “two papers unmasked an abundant lichen as a partial parasite on oaks”
That statement now seems to be debatable, at best. I know those papers exist, but I am currently unable to relocate them. This suggests that that finding is not cited or widely accepted in recent decades and they have fallen into obscurity. The amount of nutrition the authors thought they detected was minute in any case. Lichens of North America summarizes the issue thus: “A number of lichens… live only on trees with smooth, living, green bark… perhaps indicating that they actually derive some nutrition from the green bark cells (although there is still no evidence to prove this).”
p 99 “maples and other trees extend small roots among the epiphytes”
Nadkarni, Nalini M. 1981. Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science 214(4524): 1023-1024.
p 102 “‘When the boat touches the shore, he leaps out’”
McKelvey, Susan Delano. 1991. Botanical Exploration of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1790-1850. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
p 103 “‘Like all the Indians, he inhaled the smoke’”
McKelvey, Susan Delano. ibid.
p 104 “[elder] berries have health benefits confirmed in many studies”
Tiralongo, E., S.S. Wee, and R.A. Lea. 2016 Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients 8(4): 182.
Chrubasik, S., 2013. A Review of Pharmacological Effects and Clinical Efficacy of Fruit Products and Functional Foods from Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) as Compared with Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). Acta Hortic. 1061, 89-92.
Nile, Shivraj Hariram, and Se Won Park. 2014. Edible berries: Bioactive components and their effect on human health. Nutrition 30(2): 134-144.
p 107 “the early successional stage, a beneficial step”
Swanson, Mark E., J.F. Franklin, R.L. Beschta, C.M. Crisafulli, D.A. DellaSala, R.L. Hutto, D. . Lindenmayer, and F.J. Swanson. 2011. The forgotten stage of forest succession: early‐successional ecosystems on forest sites. Frontiers in Ecol. and Env. 9: 117-125.
Bormann, Bernard T., et al. 2015. Managing early succession for biodiversity and long-term productivity of conifer forests in southwestern Oregon. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 340: 114-125.
p 110 “Sharon Doty finds that willow and cottonwood also fix nitrogen”
Doty, Sharon L. 2011. Growth-promoting endophytic fungi of forest trees. In Endophytes of Forest Trees, pp. 151-156. Springer Netherlands.
Doty, Sharon L., et al. 2009. Diazotrophic endophytes of native black cottonwood and willow. Symbiosis 47(1): 23-33.
p 110 “reduced in places like Olympic valleys”
Beschta, R.L. and W.J. Ripple. 2009. Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation 142(11): 2401-2414.
p 111 “sudden aspen decline”
Morelli, Toni Lyn, and Susan C. Carr. 2011. A review of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States and a new tool for surveying sudden aspen decline. Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-235. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific SW Research Station.
p 111 “growing 50 percent faster than before—fertilized by increased CO2”
Cole, Christopher T., et al. 2010. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen. Global Change Biology 16(8): 2186-2197.
p 112 “whether the reintroduced wolves are solving the browsing problem”
Eisenberg, Cristina, S. Trent Seager, and David E. Hibbs. 2013. Wolf, elk, and aspen food web relationships: Context and complexity. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 299: 70-80.
p 114 “Oaks… have been hard hit since 2009 by a European oak pit scale”
Kohler, Glenn R., and Aleksandar Dozic. 2014. Distribution of oak pit scale and associated crown dieback of Oregon white oak in WA. WA DNR, Olympia.
p 121 “Salmonberry-choked riparian zones are common even in never-logged”
Nierenberg, Tara R., and David E. Hibbs. 2000. A characterization of unmanaged riparian areas in the central Coast Range of western Oregon. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 129(1): 195-206.
p 130 “antibiotic salve today, which my informant swears by”
My informant is Bill Ralston (“Alaska Bill”) of Juneau. (Personal communication.)
p 133 “Northwest tribes used carefully timed fire to maintain extensive berry patches”
French, David. 1999. Aboriginal Control of Huckleberry Yield in the NW. In Indians, Fire, and the Land in the PNW, ed. Robert Boyd, p. 31. OSU Press, Corvallis.
Turner, Nancy J., Douglas Deur, and Carla Rae Mellott. 2011. “Up On the Mountain”: Ethnobotanical Importance of Montane Sites In Pacific Coastal NA. Journal of Ethnobiology 31(1): 4-43.
p 133 “reverse the effects of aging on memory”
Krikorian, Robert, et al. 2010. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J. of agric. and food chem. 58(7); 3996-4000.
Taruscio, Todd G., Danny L. Barney, and Jerry Exon. 2004. Content and profile of flavanoid and phenolic acid compounds in conjunction with the antioxidant capacity for a variety of northwest Vaccinium berries. J. of agric. and food chem. 52.10: 3169-3176.
Andres-Lacueva C, et al. 2005. Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memory. Nutri. Neurosci. 8:111–120.
p 138 “the fungi enable conifer seedlings to thrive around the madrona”
Kennedy, Peter G., et al. 2012. Arbutus menziesii (Ericaceae) facilitates regeneration dynamics in mixed evergreen forests by promoting mycorrhizal fungal diversity and host connectivity. Am. J. of Botany 99(10): 1691-1701.
p 138 “madronas have been afflicted by a leaf blight”
Elliott, M., G. A. Chastagner, K. P. Coats, P. Sikdar, and C. L. Xiao. 2014. First report of a new leaf blight caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis on Pacific Madrone in Western WA and OR. Plant Disease 98(12): 1741-1741.
p 141 salal responds “by growing bigger, thinner ‘shade leaves’ ”
Smith, N.J., 1991. Sun and shade leaves: clues to how salal (Gaultheria shallon) responds to overstory stand density. Canadian J. Forest Research 21(3): 300-305.
p 143 “berberine is a recognized antibiotic and shows promise”
Yu, H.H., et al. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of berberine alone and in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of medicinal food 8(4): 454-461.
p 143 “ ‘Nuttall’s division into Mahonia is trifling.’ ”
April 19, 1825 in Douglas, David. Journal Kept by David Douglas 1823–1827. Reprinted 1959. New York: Antiquarian Press.
p 144 “florists use it interchangeably with evergreen blueberry”
Vance, Nan C., et al. 2001. Special forest products: species information guide for the PNW. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-513. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station.
p 145 “manzanitas sustain the mycorrhizal community, which conifers will need”
Kennedy, Peter G., et al. 2012. Arbutus menziesii (Ericaceae) facilitates regeneration dynamics in mixed evergreen forests by promoting mycorrhizal fungal diversity and host connectivity. Am. J. of Botany 99(10): 1691-1701.
p 151 Linnaeus “tried out every anthropomorphic sexual metaphor”
Goldhor, Susan. Deconstructing the Kingdoms. Mushroom: the Journal of Wild Mushrooming. as of 1/8/2017.

Chapter: Flowering Herbs
p 156 “Karl Andreas Geyer”
McKelvey, Susan Delano. 1991. Botanical Exploration of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1790 1850. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
p 162 “cheatgrass has taken over from native perennial grasses over the past 150 years”
A 2016 paper finds that cheatgrass and some other invasive annuals benefit from CO2 enrichment as well.
Drake, B.L., et al. 2016. The carbon fertilization effect over a century of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Global Change Biology 23, 782–792.
p 163 “Its main pollinators, a species of rove beetle”
Brousil, Matthew, Chris Humann, and Dylan Fischer. 2015. Plant-Pollinator Interactions in a Northwest Arum Related to Plant Traits but not Riparian Forest Management. NW Science 89(3): 297-307.
p 169 “After the very early snowmelt of 2015, many of the glacier lilies”
Harvey, Tanya. 2015. Observations posted on her Western Cascades web site and subsequent discussion with Paul Slichter and Ed Alverson.
p 171 “Henry Custer, a topographer who was the first explorer to write passionately”
Beckey, Fred W. 2003. A Range of Glaciers: The Exploration and Survey of the Northern Cascade Range. Portland: OR Historical Society.
p 174 “flowers that shift color as they age”
Weiss, M.R. 1995. Floral colour change: a widespread functional convergence. Am. J. of Botany 82: 167–185.
A recent paper points out that floral color change has evolved many times in unrelated plants, yet it remains rather uncommon, suggesting its benefits are limited: Ruxton, Graeme D., and H. Martin Schaefer. Floral colour change as a potential signal to pollinators. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 32 (2016): 96-100.
p 176 “Douglas’s imaginative biographer, William Norwood”
Norwood, William. 1973. Traveler in a vanished landscape : the life and times of David Douglas. London: Gentry Books.
p 177 “cyclopamine is part of the new class of anticarcinogens”
Herper, M., 2005. The curious case of the one-eyed sheep. Forbes 176(11): 69-71.
Oatis, John E, Jr, et. al. 2008. Isolation, purification, and full NMR assignments of cyclopamine from Veratrum californicum. Chemistry Central Journal 2(1): 1.
p 177 “Tofieldiales, closer to the pond-lilies than to the lilies”
Angiosperm Philogeny Website
p 180 “The Klallam informant, who is a devout Shaker”
Guenther, Erna. 1973. Ethnobotany of Western WA. Seattle: U of W Pr.
p 182 “A calypso is dependent on its fungal and plant hosts”
Bidartondo, M.I., et al. 2004. Changing partners in the dark: isotopic and molecular evidence of ectomycorrhizal liaisons between forest orchids and trees. Proc. of the Royal Soc. of London B 271(1550):1799-1806.
p 184 “saprophytes don’t exist”
Leake, J.R. 2005. Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the ‘saprophytic’ plant myth. Mycologist 19(3): 113-122.
Nickrent, Dan. The Strange and Wonderful Mycoheterotrophs. (as of 1/8/2017)
p 185 “As the cheaters evolved;” “candystick helps mushroom hunters find its host”
Bidartondo, M.I. 2005. The evolutionary ecology of myco‐heterotrophy. New Phytologist 167(2): 335-352.
p 186 “the math using then current prices for matsutake”
Pilz, Daniel, et al. 1999. Mushrooms and timber: managing commercial harvesting in the Oregon Cascades. Journal of Forestry 97(3): 4-11.
Berch, S.M. and J.M. Kranabetter. 2010. Compatible management of timber and pine mushrooms. B.C. Min. For. Range, For. Sci. Prog., and Cent. Non-Timber Resources, Royal Roads Univ., Victoria, B.C. Land Manag. Handb. 64.
p 187 “David Douglas, a year before coming to the Northwest”
October 10, 1823 (Albany, NY) in Douglas, David. Journal Kept by David Douglas 1823–1827. Reprinted 1959. New York: Antiquarian Press.
p 188 “moves Indian pipe into genus Monotropastrum
Braukmann, Thomas, and Saša Stefanović. 2012. Plastid genome evolution in mycoheterotrophic Ericaceae. Plant molecular biology 79(1-2): 5-20.
Neyland, Ray, and M. K. Hennigan. 2004. A cladistic analysis of Monotropa uniflora (Ericaceae) inferred from large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA gene sequences. Castanea 69(4): 265-271.
p 197 “persisted only on sites that had been improved”
del Moral, R., J. H. Titus, and A. M. Cook. 1995. Early primary succession on Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 107-120.
del Moral, Roger, and Iara L. Lacher. 2005. Vegetation patterns 25 years after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, WA, USA. Am. J. of Botany 92(12): 1948-1956.
p 200 “beginning to fail as the malaria parasite evolves resistance to [artemisinin].”
Roberts, Leslie. 2016. Malaria wars. Science 352(6284): 398-405.
Jabr, Ferris. 2016. Could Ancient Remedies Hold the Answer to the Looming Antibiotics Crisis? New York Times Magazine Sept 14, 2016.
p 205 “Nettles are… ‘Really big in Oregon’ ”
Gorham, John, and Liz Crain. 2013. Toro Bravo. San Francisco: McSweeney’s.
p 206 “a 2012 paper broke up genus Mimulus
Nesom, Guy L. 2012. Taxonomy of Erythranthe sect. Simiola (Phrymaceae) in the USA and Mexico. Phytoneuron 40: 1–123.
p 213 “ ‘almost a stamen’ is more plausible.”
Cronquist, A., Holmgren, A.H., Holmgren, N.H., Reveal, J.L. and Holmgren, P.K., 1984. Intermountain flora: vascular plants of the intermountain west, USA: vol. 4. Subclass Asteridae (except Asteraceae). New York: New York Botanical Garden.
p 215 Pussypaws
Taxonomic erratum: Calyptridium is in the family Montiaceae which was recently segregated from the Portulacaceae.
p 216 “now treated as a very similar species, T. diplomenziesii
Judd, W.S., et al. 2007. Tolmiea diplomenziesii: A new species from the PNW and the diploid sister taxon of the autotetraploid T. menziesii. Brittonia 59(3): 217-225.
p 217 “Jeff Braatne looked at the post-eruption benefits”
Braatne, J. H., and L. C. Bliss. 1999. Comparative physiological ecology of lupines colonizing early successional habitats on Mount St. Helens. Ecology 80(3): 891-907.
p 231 “Though it is sometimes assumed that nectar robbers replace mutualism with parasitism, close study disproved”
Morris, W.F., 1996. Mutualism denied? nectar‐robbing bumble bees do not reduce female or male success of bluebells. Ecology 77(5): 1451-1462.
p 234 “A scientist in Japan reports that the slender pinnate-lobed petals”
Okuyama, Yudai, M. Kato, and N. Murakami. 2004. Pollination by fungus gnats in four species of the genus Mitella. Bot. J. of the Linnean Society 144(4): 449-460.
p 243 “molecular evidence of P. picta and P. aphylla as genetically distinct”
Jolles, DD, and AD Wolfe. 2012. Genetic differentiation and crypsis among members of the myco-heterotrophic Pyrola picta species complex. Systematic Botany 37: 468–477.
Jolles, D.D. and C.A. Wilson. 2014. Pyrola crypta: A PNW species belonging to the Pyrola picta species complex. Taxon 63(4): 789-800.
p 243 “mixotrophic” plants
Selosse, M.A., et al. 2016. Mixotrophy in mycorrhizal plants: Extracting carbon from mycorrhizal networks. in Martin, F., Ed. 2016. Molecular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
p 244 “Our mountains have fewer invasive plants than other North American regions”
Parks, Catherine G., et al. 2005. Natural and land-use history of the NW mountain ecoregions (USA) in relation to patterns of plant invasions. Perspectives in Plant Ecol., Evol. and Systematics 7(3): 137-158.
p 244 “they also benefit from global nitrogen deposition”
Bradley, Bethany A., D.M. Blumenthal, D.S. Wilcove, and L.H. Ziska. 2010. Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change. Trends in ecology & evolution 25(5): 310-318.
Sorte, C.J., et al. 2013. Poised to prosper? A cross‐system comparison of climate change effects on native and non‐native species performance. Ecology letters 16(2): 261-270.
Dukes, Jeffrey S., and Harold A. Mooney. 1999. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(4): 135-139.
p 244 “invasive plants can adapt to climate change by timing their growth and flowering”
Körner, Christian, and D. Basler. 2010. Phenology under global warming. Science 327(5972): 1461-1462.
p 248 “a new species, F. cascadensis.”
Hummer, Kim E. 2012. A new species of Fragaria (Rosaceae) from Oregon. J. of the Bot. Research Inst. of Texas 6(1): 9-15.
p 249 “petal’s glossy surface is a layer of thin, at, very smooth, oily, translucent yellow pigment cells”
Vignolini, S., et al. 2012. Directional scattering from the glossy flower of Ranunculus: how the buttercup lights up your chin. J. of The Royal Society Interface 9(71): 1295-1301.
p 257 “A search for the first-hand report goes back 165 years”
Thanks to Steve Dupey for sleuthing the false ID.
p 258 Gray’s Lovage: “osha has been sensationalized beyond its true usefulness,”
Tilford, G. L. 1997. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Missoula, MT: Moun- tain Press.
p 260 Enchanter’s Nightshade: “Lest the unwary be enchanted by the name,”
Hitchcock, C. Leo, et al. 1955-69. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. 5 volumes. Seattle: Univ. of WA Press.
p 262 Lewis and Clark: “half the period which I am to remain in this Sublunary world”
August 8, 1805 [Lewis]. Thanks to the University of Nebraska, the Journals are now available online at (as of 1/13/16)
p 271 Goldthread “plants should be left alone…”
Vance, Nan C., et al. 2001. Special forest products: species information guide for the PNW. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-513. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station.
p 272 “Okanagan informants said [pond-lily] roots were considered poisonous”
Turner, Nancy J. 1997. Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. Vancouver: UBC Pr.
p 272 Bitteroot (and Columbia Lewisia)
Taxonomic erratum: Lewisia is in the family Montiaceae which was recently segregated from the Portulacaceae.
p 273 “Lewisia species, and many other succulents, have a nifty adaptation”
This process is known as CAM, for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, named for the stonecrop family, Crassulaceae, in which it is widespread.
Nyffeler, Reto, et al. 2008. Variations on a theme: repeated evolution of succulent life forms in the Portulacineae. Haseltonia 14: 26-36.
p 274 Tweedy’s Lewisia: changes to its scientific names
Lewisiopsis is in the family Montiaceae which was recently segregated from the Portulacaceae.
Nyffeler, Reto, et al. 2008. ibid. This paper recognizes Lewisiopsis and also makes the case for placing some genera formerly included in Portulacaceae in a separate Family Montiaceae.
Weinmann, F., P.F. Zika, D.E. Giblin, B. Legler. 2014. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Washington State. University of Washington Herbarium. (Lewisiopsis was updated by Goblin on 5/12/2014.)
Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hershkovitz, Mark A., 1992. Leaf morphology and taxonomic analysis of Cistanthe tweedyi (nee Lewisia tweedyi). Systematic botany 17(2): 220-238. But then Hershkovitz came around to Lewisiopsis in:
Hershkovitz, M.A., 2006. Ribosomal and chloroplast DNA evidence for diversification of western American Portulacaceae in the Andean region. Gayana. Botanica 63(1): 13-74.

Chapter: Ferns and Clubmosses
p 280 “The carcinogen in bracken”
da Costa, R. G., et al. 2012. Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: Chemical, biological and pathological evidence. J. of Hazardous Materials 203: 1-12.

Chapter: Mosses
P 290 “E-Flora BC currently chooses not to distinguish them”
Klinkenberg, Brian (ed.). 2013. E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia. (as of 1/17/17).
p 290Niphotrichum elongatum, formerly treated as R. canescens
Most of the species of Racomitrium (but not R. lanuginosum) have been split off as Niphotrichum species by some authorities. However, Oregon’s top bryologist, Dave Wagner, is holding off until more evidence is in: He has support from at least one recent study, Larraín, J., et al. 2013. Lumping or splitting? The case of Racomitrium. Taxon, 62(6): 1117-1132.
p 293 “it hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are the mainstay of the boreal forest nitrogen cycle”
Zackrisson, Olle, et al. 2009. Nitrogen fixation in mixed Hylocomium splendens moss communities. Oecologia 160(2): 309-319.
p 295 “Yellow shaggy moss turns up more than other species in bags”
Peck, JeriLynn, et al. 2008. Using inventory projections to evaluate management options for the nontimber forest product of epiphytic moss. Forest Science 54(2): 185-194.
p 295 “It takes 25 to 35 years to regrow”
Peck, JeriLynn. 2006. Regrowth of understory epiphytic bryophytes 10 years after simulated commercial moss harvest. Canadian J. of Forest Research 36(7), pp.1749-1757.
p 297 “Alsie Campbell describing where Marchantia grows”
Campbell, Alsie, and Jerry F. Franklin. 1979. Riparian vegetation in Oregon’s Western Cascade Mtns. Bulletin 14, Coniferous Biome. Seattle: UW Pr.

Chapter: Fungi and Lichens
p 300 “When life first moved from the sea onto the land”
Heijden, Marcel G. van der, et al. 2015. Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future. New Phytologist 205(4): 1406-1423.
p 300 “Fungal endophytes are very common in leaves”
Rodriguez, R. J., et al. 2009. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles. New Phytologist 182(2): 314-330.
p 300 “William Rubel and David Arora use it as a case study”
Rubel, William, and David Arora. 2008. A study of cultural bias in field guide determinations of mushroom edibility using the iconic mushroom, Amanita muscaria, as an example. Economic Botany 62(3): 223-243.
BUT also read this interesting rebuttal:
Viess, Debbie. 2011. Further Reflections on Amanita muscaria as an Edible Species. Mushroom: the J of Wild Mushrooming. (as of 1/17/17)
p 301 “Death Cap… introduced from Europe… on the increase”
Pringle, Anne, et al. 2009. The ectomycorrhizal fungus A. phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of NA. Molecular Ecology 18(5): 817-833.
p 303 “this [Honey] mushroom with many faces is actually several species”
Trudell, Steve, and Joe Ammirati. 2009. Mushrooms of the PNW. Portland: Timber Pr.
p 304 “A greater number may make you sick in the stomach”
Mushroom books are all too full of warnings about stomach distress; many of the best edibles sometimes cause stomach distress. I really appreciate the following resources full of specific info both from cases and from chemical analysis within our region. Beug, Michael. 2000. Poisonous and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms. (as of 1/17/17)
Beug, M.W., M. Shaw, and K.W. Cochran. 2006. Thirty plus Years of Mushroom Poisoning: Summary of the Approximately 2,000 Reports in the NAMA Case Registry. [1/17/17]
p 305 “The evolution of the first white rot fungi was a very big deal for life on earth… compelling hypothesis, from 1990, corroborated in 2012”
Hittinger, C.T., 2012. Endless Rots Most Beautiful. Science 336(6089): 1649-1650.
Floudas, D., et al. 2012. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes. Science 336(6089): 1715-1719.
Robinson, Jennifer M. 1990. Lignin, land plants, and fungi: Biological evolution affecting Phanerozoic oxygen balance. Geology 18: 607.
p 305 “a single mushroom clone had spread across 2200 acres… World’s Largest Living Thing”
Turns out it’s 2386 acres. Ferguson, B.A., et al. 2003. Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Canadian J. of Forest Research 33(4): 612-623.
Anderson, James B., and Linda M. Kohn. 1998. Genotyping, gene genealogies and genomics bring fungal population genetics above ground. Trends in ecology & evolution 13(11): 444-449.
p 311 “Many saprobic fungi… turn the tables and eat their nematodes.”
Barron, G., 1992. Jekyll-hyde mushrooms. Natural History 101(3): 46-53.
Barron, G. L., and R. G. Thorn. 1987. Destruction of nematodes by species of Pleurotus. Canadian J. of Botany 65(4): 774-778.
Zhang, Ke-Qin, and Kevin D. Hyde, eds. 2014. Nematode-Trapping Fungi. Vol. 23, Fungal Diversity Research Series. Springer Netherlands, 2014. 313-375.
p 312 Medicinal Shrooms
Patel, Seema, and Arun Goyal. 2012. Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review. 3 Biotech 2(1): 1-15.
Ferreira, Isabel CFR, Lillian Barros, and Rui Abreu. 2009. Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Current Medicinal Chemistry 16(12): 1543-1560.
p 313-314 “a 2015 mushroom book calls it too sour.”
Sorry, I lost track of what book that was, but most likely Desjardin, D. E., M. G. Wood, and F. A. Stevens. 2015. California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Portland: Timber.
p 314 Laminated Root Rot
Washington State Academy of Sciences. 2013. Opportunities for Addressing Laminated Root Rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington’s Forests. Report from the WA St. Acad. of Sci. in coop. with the WA Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.
p 314 “root rot is respected by forest ecologists as an agent of biodiversity”
Hansen, Everett M., and Ellen M. Goheen. 2000. Phellinus weirii and other native root pathogens as determinants of forest structure and process in western North America. Ann. rev. of phytopathology 38(1): 515-539.
p 314 “creating eddies that send many spores upward as soon as they fall free”
Dressaire, E., et al. 2016. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 113(11): 2833-2838.
p 316 Mycocuisine Around the World
Yamin-Pasternak, Sveta, 2011. Ethnomycology: fungi and mushrooms in cultural entanglements. In Anderson, E.N., et al., eds. Ethnobiology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 213-230.
p 316 “Matsie prices seem to have peaked years ago”
Smith, Jerry, Lisa K. Crone, and , Susan J. Alexander. 2010. A U.S. Forest Service special forest products appraisal system: background, methods, and assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-822. Portland, OR: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, PNW Research Station
p 315 “Native Americans used puffball spores to dress wounds.”
Blackwell, Will H. 2004. Puffballs: Overlooked Medicinals? Mushroom: the J of Wild Mushrooming.
p 318 “They can even bore into solid rock to extract nutrients.”
Jongmans, A.G., et al. 1997. Rock-eating fungi. Nature 389: 682-683.
p 318 “seedlings proved more likely to survive… seedlings survived only if they were inoculated”
Perry, David A., Ram Oren, and Stephen C. Hart. 2008. Forest Ecosystems. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins U. Press.
p 318 The Fungus-Root Symbiosis
A recent broad review of mycorrhizae is: Heijden, Marcel G. van der, et al. 2015. Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future. New Phytologist 205(4): 1406-1423.
p 318 “Planted in a rich… substrate, a seedling may… repel mycorrhizal”
Hoeksema, J.D., et al. 2010. A meta‐analysis of context‐dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology letters 13(3): 394-407.
p 319 “and sequestering carbon”
Thorley, R., et al. 2015. The role of forest trees and their mycorrhizal fungi in carbonate rock weathering and its significance for global carbon cycling. Plant, cell & environment 38(9): 1947-1961.
Clemmensen, K. E., et al. 2013. Roots and associated fungi drive long-term carbon sequestration in boreal forest. Science 339(6127): 1615-1618.
p 319 “The reversal was ‘as shocking as putting a pizza in front of a person’”
Quotation is from Wang, L. 2001. Fungi slay insects and feed host plants. Science News, April 7, 2001.
The study was Klironomos, John N. and Miranda M. Hart. 2001. Animal nitrogen swap for plant carbon. Nature 410: 651-652.
p 319 “Suzanne Simard measured transfer of carbohydrates to Douglas-fir”
Simard reviewed the developments following her own 1997 study in
Simard, Suzanne W., et al. 2012. Mycorrhizal networks: mechanisms, ecology and modelling. Fungal Biology Reviews 26(1): 39-60.
In a more popular vein, she recorded a TED talk in June, 2016:
p 320 They may be mycorrhizal and saprobic… or just saprobic
Hobbie, E.A., et al. 2016. Isotopic evidence indicates saprotrophy in post-fire Morchella in Oregon and Alaska. Mycologia 108(4): 638-645.
p 320 burn morels “probably there in the soil already, waiting to bear fruit after fire”
Reazin, C., et al. 2016. Fires of differing intensities rapidly select distinct soil fungal communities in a Northwest US ponderosa pine forest ecosystem. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 377: 118-127.
Greene, David F., Michael Hesketh, and Edith Pounden. 2010. Emergence of morel (Morchella) and pixie cup (Geopyxis carbonaria) ascocarps in response to the intensity of forest floor combustion during a wildfire. Mycologia 102.4: 766-773.
p 320 “Black morels popped up on barren ash at Mt. St. Helens”
Carpenter, Steven E., James M. Trappe, and Joseph Ammirati Jr. 1987. Observations of fungal succession in the Mount St. Helens devastation zone, 1980-1983. Canadian J.of Botany 65.4: 716-728.
p 320 “the most lucrative class of wild mushroom in the greater Northwest”
Pilz, David, et al. 2007. Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western N.A. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-710. Portland, OR: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, PNW Research Station.
Larson, Andrew J., et al. 2016. Post-fire morel (Morchella) mushroom abundance, spatial structure, and harvest sustainability. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 377: 16-25.
p 321 “Two new sets of morel scientific names came out… in 2014”
Richard, Franck, et al. 2015. True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) of Europe and North America: evolutionary relationships inferred from multilocus data and a unified taxonomy. Mycologia 107.2: 359-382.
p 321 “As for snowbank false-morels… either no toxin or just a trace”
Beug, Michael W. 2014. Age-old questions of edibility. Fungi 7(1): 29-31.
p 322 “The lichen symbiosis seems to have evolved separately in seven”
A 2016 paper finds that present lichen lineages descend from between 20 and 30 distinct occurrences of lichen-type symbioses.
Lücking, Robert, Brendan P. Hodkinson, and Steven D. Leavitt. 2016. The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The Bryologist 119(4): 361-416.
p 322 “the breakthrough that life needed in order to move from the sea”
Selosse, Marc-André, and François Le Tacon. 1998. The land flora: a phototroph-fungus partnership?. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13.1: 15-20.
Wang, B., and Y-L. Qiu. 2006. Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants. Mycorrhiza 16.5: 299-363.
p 322 “function of lichen chemicals is to repel herbivores, microbes, and competing plants”
Molnár, Katalin, and Edit Farkas. 2010. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 65(3-4): 157-173.
p 322 “You could say we have here counterparts to a farmer”
Lücking, R., et al. 2009. Do lichens domesticate photobionts like farmers domesticate crops? Am. J. of Botany 96(8): 1409-1418.
p 323 “propagation from fragments that include both partners together”
That should read “fragments that include all three partners…” The discovery of the third partner (see page 334) came just as this book went to press:
Spribille, Toby, et al. 2016. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. Science 353(6298): 488-492.
p 323 “a spore can grow into a sort of slight smudge called a prethallus”
Goward, Trevor. 2010-2011. Twelve readings on the lichen thallus. (as of 1/17/17)
p 324 “3 1⁄3 mm per century, after a slightly faster initial growth spurt”
Measurements in the Cascades and Coast Mtns. have been in the same ball park or slightly faster. That said, the recent literature bears a lot of caveats about growth rate variability. For one thing, some studies find the initial growth spurt lasting to about age 80, others to age 150.
Rothgeb, Allison L. 2011. Direct growth rates of section Rhizocarpon lichens in the Cascade range of WA and northern OR. Masters thesis, Univ. of DE.
Armstrong, R.A., and T. Bradwell. 2010. Growth of Crustose Lichens: A Review. Geografiska Annaler 92: 3-17.
p 324 “Lichen lineages are so old that they must have survived three of the big five mass extinctions
Lücking, Robert, Brendan P. Hodkinson, and Steven D. Leavitt. 2016. The 2016 classification of lichenized fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The Bryologist 119(4): 361-416.
p 326 Biological Crusts
Elbert, W., et al. 2009. Microbiotic crusts on soil, rock and plants: neglected major players in the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen? Biogeosciences Discussions 6(4):6983-7015.
p 327 Lettuce lungwort “supplies up to half the nitrogen”
Denison, William C. 1973. Life in tall trees. Scientific American 228(6): 74-80.
Antoine, Marie E. 2004. An ecophysiological approach to quantifying nitrogen fixation by Lobaria oregana. Bryologist 107(1): 82-87.
p 328 “Canopy Zones”
McCune, Bruce, R. Rosentreter, J.M. Ponzetti, and D.C. Shaw. 2000. Epiphyte habitats in an old conifer forest in western Washington, USA. Bryologist 103(3): 417-427. Said to be the most-cited article on lichens ever published in The Bryologist.
Aubrey, D.A., N.M. Nadkarni, and C.P. Broderick. 2013. Patterns of moisture and temperature in canopy and terrestrial soils in a temperate rainforest, WA. Botany 91(11): 739-744.
Sillett, Stephen C. 1995. Branch epiphyte assemblages in the forest interior and on the clearcut edge of a 700-year-old Douglas fir canopy in western OR. Bryologist 98(3):301-312.
p 329 “more species of Peltigera than any other part of the world”
Goward, Trevor, B. Goffinet, and O. Vitikainen. 1995. Synopsis of the genus Peltigera in British Columbia, with a key to the N American species. Canadian J. of Botany 73:91–111.
p 330 “Ernest Thompson Seton found it the most satisfactory”
Seton, Ernest Thompson. 1912. The Book of Woodcraft, p 247. New York: Garden City. Can be viewed on Google Books.
p 331 “monitor an airshed’s pollution… by checking which [lichens] are still present”
McCune, Bruce, and Linda Geiser. 2009. Macrolichens of the PNW. 2nd ed. Corvallis, OR: OSU Press. Includes pollution tolerance ratings for nearly all NW lichen species.
p 331 “The telltale clue [Geiser] spotted”
Geiser, Linda H., et al. 2008. Evidence of enhanced atmospheric ammoniacal nitrogen in Hells Canyon NRA: Implications for natural and cultural resources. J. of the Air & Waste Mgmt. Assoc. 58(9): 1223-1234.
p 334 “a 2016 study discovered a third symbiotic partner, a yeast fungus”
Spribille, Toby, et al. 2016. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. Science 353(6298): 488-492. A MAJOR BREAKTHROUGH PAPER.
p 334 “to demand a new taxonomy of lichens that names the entire symbiotic package”
Goward, Trevor. 2010-2011. Twelve readings on the lichen thallus. (as of 1/17/17)
p 335 “usnic acid, an antibiotic”
Ivanovic, J., et al. 2013. Influence of different pre-treatment methods on isolation of extracts with strong antibacterial activity from lichen Usnea barbata using carbon dioxide as a solvent. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 76: 1-9.
Molnár, Katalin, and Edit Farkas. 2010. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 65(3-4): 157-173.

Chapter: Mammals
p 338 “talus, where it is never hot, even during most forest fires.”
Varner, Johanna, et al. 2015. Too hot to trot? Evaluating the effects of wildfire on patterns of occupancy and abundance for a climate-sensitive habitat specialist. Int’l. J. of Wildland Fire 24(7): 921-932.
p 338 “The question is whether they are dependent on cold climates.”
Jeffress, M.R., et al. 2013. The idiosyncrasies of place: geographic variation in the climate–distribution relationships of the American pika. Ecol. Applications 23(4): 864-878.
Smith, Andrew T., and John D. Nagy. 2015. Population resilience in an American pika (Ochotona princeps) metapopulation. J. of Mammalogy 96.2: 394-404.
p 338 “Close study finds that Gorge pikas and alpine pikas lead very different”
Varner, Johanna, and M. Denise Dearing. 2014. Dietary plasticity in pikas as a strategy for atypical resource landscapes. J. of Mammalogy 95.1: 72-81.
p 339 “pikas include some highly phenolic (mildly toxic) plants to inhibit rot”
Dearing, M. D. 1997. The manipulation of plant toxins by a food-hoarding herbivore, Ochotona princeps. Ecology 78:774–781.
p 341 “it does not perceive much that transpires in its microcosm”
Verts, B. J., and Leslie Carraway. 1998. Land Mammals of Oregon. Berkeley: UC Pr.
p 341 “New species names in the group have been assigned”
Hope, Andrew G., et al. 2014. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex). J. of Mammalogy 95(4): 722-738.
p 345 “a fungal disease called white-nose syndrome”
Knudsen, Guy R., R.D. Dixon, and S.K. Amelon. 2013. Potential spread of White-Nose Syndrome of bats to the NW: epidemiological considerations. NW Science 87.4: 292-306.
p 345 “Everyone in my end of the county that has boomers”
Written when I lived in far-east Multnomah County.
p 351 “The vole ventures from its nest for only about one hour per night”
Swingle, James K., and Eric D. Foreman. 2009. Home range areas and activity patterns of red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) in western Oregon. NW Science 83.3: 273-286.
p 352 “Rating the nutrition in these morsels” (truffles)
Wallis, Ian R., Andrew W. Claridge, and James M. Trappe. 2012. Nitrogen content, amino acid composition and digestibility of fungi from a nutritional perspective in animal mycophagy. Fungal Biology 116.5: 590-602.
Claridge, A.W., J. M. Trappe, S.J. Cork, and D. L. Claridge. 1999. Mycophagy by small mammals in the coniferous forests of NA: nutritional value of sporocarps of Rhizopogon vinicolor… J. of Comparative Physiology B 169(3): 172-178.
Dubay, S. A., G. D. Hayward, and C. Martínez del Rio. 2008. Nutritional value and diet preference of arboreal lichens and hypogeous fungi for small mammals in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian J. of Zoology 86(8): 851-862.
p 360 Marmot “females skip breeding in some years”
Patil, Vijay P., Timothy J. Karels, and David S. Hik. 2015. Ecological, evolutionary and social constraints on reproductive effort: are hoary marmots really biennial breeders?. PloS One 10.3: e0119081.
p 360 “predator numbers and behavior probably contributed, as did extensive clearcut logging”
Bryant, Andrew A., and Rick E. Page. 2005. Timing and causes of mortality in the endangered Vancouver Island marmot. Canadian J. of Zoology 83.5: 674-682.
p 360 “One study found that current colonies may be too small”
Brashares, Justin S., J.R. Werner, and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2010. Social ‘meltdown’ in the demise of an island endemic: Allee effects and the Vancouver Island marmot. J. of Animal Ecology 79(5): 965-973.
p 360 Marmot “Olympic marmots are also in decline”
Griffin, Suzanne Cox. 2007. Demography and ecology of a declining endemic: the Olympic marmot. PhD. dissertation, U of MT.
p 360 “Their decline is blamed on intense predation by the coyotes”
Witczuk, Julia, Stanisław Pagacz, and L. Scott Mills. 2013. Disproportionate predation on endemic marmots by invasive coyotes. J. of Mammalogy 94.3: 702-713.
p 360 “climate change didn’t directly cause either of those declines”
Armitage, Kenneth B. (2013) Climate change and the conservation of marmots. Natural Science 5: 36-43.
p 361 “A 2009 study split the large genus Spermophilus eight ways.”
Helgen, K.M., et al. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. J. of Mammalogy 90(2): 270-305.
p 361 Northern Fly Squirrels “glide far and very accurately”
Their ability to maneuver and to carry weight are amazing: Badyaev, Alexander V. 2016. Moonlight Gliders. BioGraphic [online]; CA Academy of Science. [as of 1/30/2017]
p 362 “requires at least a small supplement of richer fare, like seeds or nuts”
Dubay, Shelli A., G. D. Hayward, and C. Martínez del Rio. 2008. Nutritional value and diet preference of arboreal lichens and hypogeous fungi for small mammals in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian J. of Zoology 86(8): 851-862.
p 365 “biologists collected 404 predator scats in Olympic National Park”
Witczuk, Julia, Stanisław Pagacz, and L. Scott Mills. 2013. Disproportionate predation on endemic marmots by invasive coyotes. J. of Mammalogy 94.3: 702-713.
p 366 Gray wolves “are likely to continue to spread in the Cascades
Becker, S.A., et al. 2016. Washington Gray Wolf Conservation and Management 2015 Annual Report. Pages WA-1 to WA-24 in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Rocky Mountain Wolf Program 2015 Annual Report. Helena, MT: USFWS Ecological Services.
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2016. Oregon Wolf Conservation and Management 2015 Annual Report. Salem: ODFW.
Frequently updated status reports are easy to find on the web. For example, (as of 1/19/17)
p 367 Gray wolves are “expected to have far-ranging ecological benefits”
Beschta, Robert L., and William J. Ripple. 2008. Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic NP, USA. Ecohydrology 1.2: 118-130.
Beschta and Ripple publish copiously and enthusiastically on trophic cascades involving Carnivora. They have many supporters and many critics. For a judiciously skeptical review of the evidence so far in the Rockies, see:
Eisenberg, Cristina, S.T. Seager, and D.E. Hibbs. 2013. Wolf, elk, and aspen food web relationships: Context and complexity. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 299 (2013): 70-80.
p 367 “The separation of wolves and coyotes broke down (producing ‘red wolves’ and very large coyotes)”
This is an ongoing controversy, with one side arguing for the red wolf and/or the eastern wolf as full species, and the other seeing them as fairly recent wolf-coyote hybrids.
vonHoldt, Bridgette, et al. 2016. Whole-genome sequence analysis shows that two endemic species of North American wolf are admixtures of the coyote and gray wolf. Science Advances 2(7), p.e1501714.
Ersmark, Erik, et al. 2016. From the past to the present: Wolf phylogeography and demographic history based on the mitochondrial control region. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 4: 134.
Mech, L David, et al. (2014) Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes. PLoS One 9(2): e88861.
The proper-species view: Rutledge, Linda Y., et al. 2015 RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis. Biology letters 11.7: 20150303.
p 367 “David Mech spent 13 summers… with wolves that had never encountered humans”
Mech, L. David. 1999. Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Canadian J Zoology 77: 1196‒1203.
p 367 “in the media wolves have gone from cruel to cuddly. Both views are exaggerations.”
Mech, L. David, 2012. Is science in danger of sanctifying the wolf?. Biological Conservation 150(1): 143-149.
p 367 “Some time during the last ice age” (origin of domestic dogs)
Grimm, David, 2015. Dawn of the dog. Science 348(6232): 274-279.
Nagasawa, M., et al. 2015. Oxytocin-gaze positive loop and the coevolution of human-dog bonds. Science 348(6232): 333-336.
p 368 “A 2002 paper wailed that invasive genotypes had almost finished”
Kamler, Jan F., and Warren B. Ballard. 2002. A review of native and nonnative red foxes in North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2): 370-379.
p 368 “DNA study now finds that American foxes have no significant European”
Statham, Mark J., et al. 2014. Range‐wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories. Molecular Ecology 23(19): 4813-4830.
p 368 “literature search found that the alleged importations for sport may be a myth.”
Frey, Jennifer K. 2013. Re-evaluation of the evidence for the importation of red foxes from Europe to colonial America: origins of the southeastern red fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva). Biological conservation 158: 74-79.
p 368 “descended from fur farm escapes bearing eastern North American genes”
Statham, Mark J., B.N. Sacks, K.B. Aubry, J.D. Perrine, and S.M. Wisely. 2012. The origin of recently established red fox populations in the United States: translocations or natural range expansions? J. of Mammalogy 93(1): 52-65.
p 371 “Lynx populations in Canada rise and plummet cyclically”
Yan, C., et al. 2013. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx. Global change biology 19(11): 3263-3271.
p 372 “whether the evolving cougar hunt plans are helping or hurting”
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2008. Pilot Cougar Control Program: 2008 Legislative Report. Olympia: WDFW.
Kertson, Brian N., et al. 2011. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland–urban landscape of western Washington. Ecological Applications 21.8: 2866-2881.
Collard, Rosemary-Claire. 2012. Cougar-human entanglements and the biopolitical un/making of safe space. Environment and Planning D 30.1: 23-42.
p 372 “attacks on humans peaked around the year 2000”
Collard, Rosemary-Claire Magdeleine Solange. 2009. Cougar-human entanglements on Vancouver Island: relational agency and space. M.A. Thesis UBC Vancouver.
p 373 “This substance burns the eyes, chokes the throat, and of course stinks”
Wood, William F. 1990. New components in defensive secretion of the striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis. Journal of chemical ecology 16.6: 2057-2065.
p 374Vison vison. Also Mustela vison, Neovison vison.”
Bradley, Robert D., et al. 2014. Revised Checklist of North American Mammals North of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech Univ. Occ. Papers, No. 327.
Bradley et al’s choice of Vison vison (a change from Mustela vison in the previous checklist edition) puzzles me. Their references include both Harding and Smith (2009) and Koepfli et al (2008). Those two studies see a clade combining the mink with either the four New World weasel species (Harding and Smith) or just the long-tailed weasel (Koepfli). I think that should mean that you can only take the mink out of Mustela if you also take one or both of our weasels out of Mustela. I suspect this present nomenclature for our weasels and mink may not last long.
Harding, Larisa E., and Felisa A. Smith. 2009. Mustela or Vison? Evidence for the taxonomic status of the American mink and a distinct biogeographic radiation of American weasels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52.3: 632-642.
Koepfli, Klaus-Peter, et al. 2008. Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae. BMC biology 6(10).
Sato, Jun J., et al. 2012. Evolutionary and biogeographic history of weasel-like carnivorans (Musteloidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and evolution 63(3): 745-757.
p 376 “Otter staples are crayfish and slow-moving fish”
Russell, Anna. 2015. Dietary Patterns of Lontra canadensis in the Lower Snohomish River Estuary, WA. NW Science 89.2: 182-187.
p 377 “Ninety fishers released in Olympic National Park”
Lewis, Jeffrey C., et al. 2016. Landscape-scale habitat selection by fishers translocated to the Olympic Peninsula of WA. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 369: 170-183.
Happe, Patricia J., Kurt J. Jenkins, Michael K. Schwartz, Jeffrey C. Lewis, and Keith B. Aubry. 2014. Evaluation of fisher restoration in Olympic NP and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2013 annual progress report. USGS Administrative Report.
p 377 “Reintroductions in the Washington Cascades began in 2015. Stay tuned.”
Lewis, Jeffrey C. 2013. Implementation plan for reintroducing fishers to the Cascade Mountain Range in WA. WA Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia.
p 377 “Attempts to model fisher habitat under climate change”
Lawler, Joshua J., Hugh D. Safford, and Evan H. Girvetz. 2012. Martens and fishers in a changing climate. In Aubry, Keith B., et al., eds. Biology and Conservation of Martens, Sables, and Fishers. Ithaca, NY: Comstock.
p 378 “One paper looked at climate models and predicted that by 2100”
Peacock, Synte. 2011. Projected 21st century climate change for wolverine habitats within the contiguous US. Environmental Research Letters 6(1): 014007.
p 378 Wolverines “require a home that has a thick snowpack into mid-May.”
Inman, Robert Michael. 2013. Wolverine Ecology and Conservation in the Western United States. PhD Dissertation, Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sciences, Uppsala.
p 378 “Advances in radio-tagging have finally enabled closer study” (paragraph)
Chadwick, Douglas H. 2010. The Wolverine Way. Ventura, CA: Patagonia.
p 380-381 “Two or three cubs are born around January.” (paragraph)
Rogers, Lynn. 1981. A bear in its lair. Natural History 90(10): 64–70.
p 382 “marine isotopes in hair samples from museum [grizzly bear] specimens”
Hilderbrand, Grant V., et al. 1996. Use of stable isotopes to determine diets of living and extinct bears. Canadian J Zoology 74: 2080‒88.
p 386 “Many explanations of stotting… The current one is”
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. 2013. Information and Influence in Sender-Receiver Models, with Applications to Animal Behavior. pp. 377-396 in U. Stegmann, (ed.), Animal Communication Theory: Information and Influence. Cambridge University Press.
p 386 “mule deer have decreased where whitetails have moved in.”
Cooley, H.S., et al. 2008. Cougar prey selection in a white-tailed deer and mule deer community. J. of Wildlife Management 72(1): 99-106.
Forrester, T.D. and H.U. Wittmer. 2013. A review of the population dynamics of mule deer and black‐tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus in NA. Mammal Rev. 43(4): 292-308.
p 386 “A nonnative louse has been afflicting Northwest deer”
McCoy, Rob, and Shannon Murphie. 2011. Factors Affecting the Survival of Black-tailed Deer Fawns on the Northwestern Olympic Peninsula, WA; Final Report. Makah Tribal Forestry, Neah Bay, WA.
p 387 “became unnaturally dense in national parks with no hunting”
Van Pelt, Robert, et al. 2006. Riparian forest stand development along the Queets river in Olympic NP, WA. Ecol. Monog. 76(2): 277-298.
Beschta, Robert L., and William J. Ripple. 2008. Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic NP, USA. Ecohydrology 1.2: 118-130.

Chapter: Birds
p 391 “Raptors can’t see ultraviolet very well”
Lind, O., et al. 2013. Ultraviolet sensitivity and colour vision in raptor foraging. J. of Experimental Biology 216(10): 1819-1826.
p 391 “two species that look just alike to us may actually look otherwise to a bird”
Bleiweiss, Robert, 2004. Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 101(47): 16561-16564.
p 394 “Brain scans on mallards in this state found that the brain hemisphere”
Rattenborg, N. C., et al. 1999. Half-awake to the risk of predation. Nature 397: 397‒98.
p 397 “Even Press Expedition men—the seasoned frontiersmen”
Wood, Robert L. 1989. Across the Olympic Mountains: The Press Expedition, 1889-90. 2nd Ed. Seattle: Mountaineers.
p 401 murrelets “stable in OR and WA for now, but uncertain for the long term”
Huff, Mark H. et al.. tech. coords. 2006. Northwest Forest Plan—The first 10 years (1994-2003): status and trends of populations and nesting habitat for the marbled murrelet. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-650. Portland, OR: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, PNW Research Station.
p 402 “bird of rebirth/ buzzard… —Lew Welch”
Welch, Lew. 2012. Ring of Bone: Collected Poems. Expanded Ed. San Francisco: City Lights.
p 402 “Turkey buzzards… able to handle moderate climate change.”
Dodge, S. et al. 2014. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures… in N and S America. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 369(1643), p.20130195.
p 405 Raptors Reconfigured
Burleigh, J. Gordon, R.T. Kimball, and E.L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evol. 84: 53-63.
Jarvis, E.D., et al. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346(6215): 1320-1331.
p 409 “optically tracked a peregrine stooping at 157 miles per hour.”
Tucker, Vance A. 1998. Gliding flight: speed and acceleration of ideal falcons during diving and pull out. J. of Experimental Biology 201: 403–414.
p 409 “Ken Franklin… clocked her stooping from there at 242 miles per hour.”
Harpole, Tom. 2005. Falling with the Falcon. Air and Space Magazine March 2005.
p 410 “Peregrines… approach in a long arc (actually a logarithmic spiral)”
Tucker, Vance A., et al. 2000. Curved flight paths and sideways vision in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). J. of Experimental Biology 203(24)… 3755-3763.
p 412 “Decades of intense study [of N. Spotted Owl] have not really determined”
Anthony, R.G., Forsman, E.D., et al. 2006. Status and trends in demography of northern spotted owls, 1985–2003. Wildlife Monographs 163: 1-48.
p 415 “Hummingbird bills”
Yanega, Gregor M., and Margaret A. Rubega. 2004. Feeding mechanisms: Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture. Nature 428.6983: 615-615.
p 416 “feathers that produce specific buzz frequencies that appeal to conspecific females”
Clark, Christopher J., Damian O. Elias, and Richard O. Prum. 2011. Aeroelastic flutter produces hummingbird feather songs. Science 333.6048: 1430-1433.
p 422 “Birds of North America lists this vocal repertoire for the Steller’s jay: creak…”
Greene, E., W. Davison, and V.R. Muehter. 1998. Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri). Account 343 in A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington DC.
p 423 “Clark’s nutcrackers coevolved with whitebark pines”
Tomback, Diana F., 1998. Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). Account 331 in A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington DC.
p 424 “Bernd Heinrich, who devoted years to close observation of ravens”
Heinrich, Bernd. 2006. Mind of the Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-Birds. New York: Harper.
p 425 “West Nile trends since 2005 have been ambiguous, and this new threat”
Nemeth, N.M. and P.T. Oesterle. 2014. West Nile virus from an avian conservation perspective. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 101-115.
p 428-429 “the Pacific Wren’s song” (paragraph)
Kroodsma, Donald E. 2005. The Singing Life of Birds. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
p 429 “Chickadees grow new neurons in a big burst each fall”
Barnea, Anat, and Fernando Nottebohm. 1996. Recruitment and replacement of hippocampal neurons in young and adult chickadees: an addition to the theory of hippocampal learning. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 93(2): 714-718.
p 429 “Very small birds… also cram the brain neurons in much more densely”
Olkowicz, S., et al. 2016. Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 113(26): 7255–7260.
p 434 “Diverse strategies are being pursued… the female actively sought out a male”
Cornwallis, Charlie K., et al. 2010. Promiscuity and the evolutionary transition to complex societies. Nature 466(7309): 969-972.
Otter, Ken, et al. 1998. Do female black-capped chickadees prefer high-ranking males as extra-pair partners? Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 43: 25‒36
p 439 “the red crossbill is really eight or ten different species”
Benkman, Craig W. 2003. Divergent selection drives the adaptive radiation of crossbills. Evolution 57: 1176–1181.
Chapter: Reptiles
p 440 “lizard populations are in sharp decline due to climate change”
Huey, Raymond B., Jonathan B. Losos, and Craig Moritz. 2010. Are lizards toast? Science 328.5980: 832-833.
p 440 “scales overlap rearward, so that a snake slides forward easily, but not at all easily backward”
Hu, David L. et al. 2009. The mechanics of slithering locomotion. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 106(25): 10081-10085.
p 440 “a completely different locomotion mode, sidewinding, is more efficient”
Secor, Stephen M., Bruce C. Jayne, and Albert F. Bennett. 1992. Locomotor performance and energetic cost of sidewinding by the snake Crotalus cerastes. J. of experimental biology 163(1): 1-14.
p 440 “rectilinear slithering… Very slow, and seven times costlier in energy”
Marvi, Hamidreza, Jacob Bridges, and David L. Hu. 2013. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves. J. of The Royal Society Interface 10.84: 20130188.
p 441 “Reptilia has to be either broken up or enlarged to include birds.”
Crawford, N.G., et al. 2012. More than 1000 ultraconserved elements provide evidence that turtles are the sister group of archosaurs. Biology letters 8(5): 783-786.
p 443 Constricting “works by stopping the heart, not the breath”
Boback, Scott M., et al. 2015. Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats. J. of Experimental Biology 218(14): 2279-2288.
p 443 “can strike and pull back again… in the blink of any eye. Even some nonvenemous snakes”
Penning, David A., Baxter Sawvel, and Brad R. Moon. 2016. Debunking the viper’s strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption. Biology letters 12(3): 20160011.

Chapter: Amphibians
Frost, D.R., et al. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bull. of the Am. Mus. of Natural History, pp.1-291.
p 444 Amphibian “populations hold up quite well after forest fires”
Guscio, C.G., et al. 2008. Post-breeding habitat use by adult boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) after wildfire in Glacier NP, USA. Herpetological Cons. and Biol. 3(1): 55-62
p 444 “Amphibians are in decline worldwide, due to a tangled swarm of problems”
Catenazzi, Alessandro. 2015. State of the World’s Amphibians. Ann. Rev. of Env. and Resources 40: 91-119.
Blaustein, Andrew R., et al. 2011. The complexity of amphibian population declines: understanding the role of cofactors in driving amphibian losses. Annals of the New York Acad. of Sci. 1223(1): 108-119.
Ryan, Maureen E., W.J. Palen, M.J. Adams, and R.M. Rochefort. 2014. Amphibians in the climate vise: loss and restoration of resilience of montane wetland ecosystems in the western US. Frontiers in Ecol. and Env. 12(4): 232-240.
p 447 “enhancement of soil carbon sinks in ensatinas’ consumption of tiny critters”
Best, Michael L., and Hartwell H. Welsh Jr. 2014. The trophic role of a forest salamander: impacts on invertebrates, leaf litter retention, and the humification process. Ecosphere 5(2): 1-19.
p 448 “Clouded Salamander “was brought to Vancouver Island from California”
Jackman, T. R. 1998. Molecular and historical evidence for the introduction of clouded salamanders (genus Aneides) to Vancouver I.… from California. Canadian J. Zoology 76: 1570-1580.
p 448 “Some live in moss mats high in rainforest canopies”
Spickler, James C., S.C. Sillett, S.B. Marks, and H.H. Welsh. 2006. Evidence of a new niche for a North American salamander: Aneides vagrans residing in the canopy of old-growth redwood forest. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 1(1):16-26.
p 449 “Ravens manage to prey on [toads] by separating the flesh from the skin”
Crisafulli, Charles M., et al. 2005. Amphibian responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. pp. 183-197 in Dale, Virginia H., Frederick J. Swanson, and Charles M. Crisafulli. Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Springer New York.
p 449 “Western toads are declining rapidly. A 1995 study”
Kiesecker, J. M., and A. R. Blaustein. 1995. Synergism between UV-B Radiation and a pathogen magnifies amphibian embryo mortality in nature. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92: 11049–52.
p 450 “After 1980 at Mt. St. Helens [the Pacific treefrog] was able to disperse”
Crisafulli, Charles M., et al. 2005. Amphibian responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. pp. 183-197 in Dale, V. H., F.J. Swanson, and C.M. Crisafulli. Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Springer New York.

Chapter: Fish
p 452 “High lakes with and without finny predators support different amphibians”
Ryan, Maureen E., W.J. Palen, M.J. Adams, and R.M. Rochefort. 2014. Amphibians in the climate vise: loss and restoration of resilience of montane wetland ecosystems in the western US. Frontiers in Ecol. and Env. 12(4): 232-240.
p 454-455 Anthropologists “have taken to calling them ‘cultivation’ of salmon’”
Thornton, Thomas, Douglas Deur, and Herman Kitka Sr. 2015. Cultivation of salmon and other marine resources on the Northwest Coast of North America. Human Ecology 43(2): 189-199.
p 455 “the run on British Columbia’s Kitlope River”
Hill, A., et al. 2010. Merits and limits of ecosystem protection for conserving wild salmon in a northern coastal British Columbia river. Ecology and Society 15(2).
p 455 “the chief determinant of salmon numbers seems to be ocean conditions”
Rechisky, E.L., et al. 2013. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 110(17): 6883-6888.
Peterson, W.T., et al. 2014. Ocean ecosystem indicators of salmon marine survival in the Northern California Current. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. NMFS, NW Fisheries Science Center.
p 455 “populations in Alaskan lakes over the past 500 years”
Finney, B.P., et al. 2002. Fisheries productivity in the northeastern Pacific Ocean over the past 2,200 years. Nature 416(6882): 729-733.
p 455 “the more southernly salmon runs are the ones least likely to survive”
Lackey, Robert T. 2013. Saving wild salmon: a 165 year policy conundrum. Dubach Workshop: Science and Scientists in the Contemporary Policy Process, Oregon State University, October 3-4, Portland, Oregon.
p 457 “fertilization of plants has been demonstrated in dozens of studies”
Benjamin, J.R., J.R. Bellmore, and G.A. Watson. 2016. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook Salmon. Freshwater Sci. 35.3: 810-825.
Shardlow, Thomas F., and Kim D. Hyatt. 2013. Quantifying associations of large vertebrates with salmon in riparian areas of British Columbia streams by means of camera-traps, bait stations, and hair samples. Ecological indicators 27: 97-107.
Reimchen, Thomas E., and Caroline H. Fox. 2013. Fine-scale spatiotemporal influences of salmon on growth and nitrogen signatures of Sitka spruce tree rings. BMC ecology 13.1: 38.
Hocking, Morgan D., and John D. Reynolds. 2012. Nitrogen uptake by plants subsidized by Pacific salmon carcasses: a hierarchical experiment. Canadian J. of Forest Research. 42.5: 908-917.
Gende, S.M., et al. 2002. Pacific Salmon in Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems. BioScience 52(10): 917-928.
The first study confirming marine N isotopes upstream may have been:
Bilby, Robert E., Brian R. Fransen, and Peter A. Bisson. 1996. Incorporation of nitrogen and carbon from spawning coho salmon into the trophic system of small streams: evidence from stable isotopes. Can. J. of Fisheries and Aq. Sci. 53(1): 164-173.
p 457 “some scientists ran the numbers [on salmon nitrogen transport] in 1999”
Gresh, T., J. Lichatowich, and P. Schoonmaker. 2000. An estimation of historic and current levels of salmon… evidence of a nutrient deficit. Fisheries 25(1): 15‒21.
p 458 “Rainbows and steelhead are not firmly separated genetically”
Kendall, N.W., et al. 2014. Anadromy and residency in steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian J. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. 72(3): 319-342.
Courter, I.I., et al. 2013. Resident rainbow trout produce anadromous offspring in a large interior watershed. Canadian J. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sci. 70(5): 701-710.
p 458 “Cutthroat Trout, Oncorhynchus clarki
Both clarki and clarkii are often seen as the species name. Robert Behnke uses clarki, but it’s looking to me like clarkii is a bit more “official,” so I’ll be changing to that spelling in the second printing.
p 461 “Fish came back fast after the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.”
Bisson, Peter A., et al. Responses of Fish to the 1980 Eruption of Mt. St. Helens. 2005. pp. 163-181 in Dale, Virginia H., Frederick J. Swanson, and Charles M. Crisafulli. Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Springer New York.
p 461 Eulachon “oil was the universal condiment in the cuisine of coastal peoples”
This is emphatically true in BC, but there is surprisingly little record of its use along the Columbia, despite the eulachon’s abundance there.
Boyd, Robert, Kenneth Ames, and Tony Johnson, eds. 2013. Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia. Seattle: UW Press.
p 462 Eulachon decline. “Climate tops the list of suspects.”
Gustafson, R.G., et al. 2012. Conservation status of eulachon in the California Current. Fish and Fisheries 13(2): 121-138.

Chapter: Insects
p 463 “the pupa hosts the greatest magical trick in the natural world”
James, David G., and David Nunnallee. 2011. Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
p 464 “Gary Snyder in his 1951 journal from a North Cascades fire lookout”
Snyder, Gary. 1969. Earth House Hold. NY: New Directions.
p 464 “Each mosquito species has its own wing-beat frequencies, one for males”
In many species, courtship involves the couple attuning their frequencies to each other; often the male and female pitches are too far apart to allow meeting at one fundamental pitch, so they tune to where one of their higher harmonics matches. Vigoder, F.D.M., et al. 2013. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors. Memorias do instituto oswaldo cruz 108: 26-33.
McNeil, D.G. 2016. Telling Mosquitoes Apart With a Cellphone. New York Times Nov. 21, 2016
p 465 “How to Not Get Bit”
Environmental Working Group. 2013. EWG’s Guide to Better Bug Repellents.
p 465 “Nootkatone and other compounds from Alaska cedar will take a few years”
Jordan, Robert A., Terry L. Schulze, and Marc C. Dolan. 2012. Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum. J. of medical entomology 49(1): 101-106.
p 465 “actually increased the number of bites in one scientific study”
Revay, E.E., et al. 2013. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes. Acta tropica 125(2): 226-230.
p 465 “Scientists analyzed their skin secretions and identified the natural repellents”
Logan, J.G., et al. 2010. Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents. Malaria journal 9(1): 239.
Dormont, Laurent, Jean-Marie Bessière, and Anna Cohuet. 2013. Human skin volatiles: a review. Journal of chemical ecology 39(5): 569-578.
p 466 “Malaria, introduced here in 1830… killed a majority of the Indians”
Boyd, Robert T. 2013. Lower Chinookan Disease and Demography. In Boyd, R., K. Ames, and T. Johnson, eds. Chinookan Peoples of the Lower Columbia. Seattle: UW Press.
p 468 “Hover Flies.” If you want to take a stab at identification, see
Miranda, G.F.G., et al. 2013. Key to the genera of Nearctic Syrphidae. Canadian J. of Arthropod Identification 23: 1-351.
p 468 “beneficial to plants, and hence to farmers”
Gontijo, Lessando M., Elizabeth H. Beers, and William E. Snyder. 2013. Flowers promote aphid suppression in apple orchards. Biological Control 66(1): 8-15.
p 468 “in our high mountain meadows, flies may do more pollinating than bees.”
Shaw, David C., and R. J. Taylor. 1986. Pollination ecology of an alpine fell-field community in the North Cascades. NW Science 60: 21–31.
p 469 “Cost-benefit analysis confirms that the sunlit fly comes out ahead.”
Heinrich, Bernd, and Curt Pantle. 1975. Thermoregulation in small flies (Syrphus sp.): basking and shivering. J. of Experimental Biol. 62(3): 599-610.
p 470 “Bernd Heinrich has cataloged thermoregulation in insects”
Heinrich, Bernd. 1996. The Thermal Warriors. Cambridge: Harvard U Pr.
p 470 “Each bumble bee species has multiple color patterns” and paragraph.
Williams, Paul H. 2014. Bumble Bees of North America: An Identification Guide. Princeton NJ: Princeton U Pr. The following similar but narrower guide can be downloaded:
Koch, J., Strange, J. and Williams, P.H. 2012. Bumble bees of the western United States. US Forest Service and the Pollinator Partnership.

p 470 “honey bee and bumble bee populations are threatened by a host of modern problems”
Potts, S.G., et al. 2016. Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human well-being. Nature 540(7632): 220-229.
Cameron, S.A., et al. 2011. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 108(2): 662-667.
p 470 “biggest problems [include] neonicotinoids, a new class of insecticide”
Raine, Nigel E., and Richard J. Gill. 2015. Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field. Nature 521.7550: 38-40.
p 472 Balsam Woolly Adelgid “deadly to several American firs” and paragraph
Hrinkevich, Kathryn H., Robert A. Progar, and David C. Shaw. 2016. Climate Risk Modelling of Balsam Woolly Adelgid Damage Severity in Subalpine Fir Stands of Western North America. PloS One 11(10): e0165094.
Mitchell, R.G., and P.E. Buffam. 2001. Patterns of long-term balsam woolly adelgid infestations and effects in OR and WA. Western J. Applied Forestry 16.3: 121-126.
p 472 “A. tsugae is native here and coevolved with our hemlocks; the Japanese strain”
Havill, N.P., Montgomery, M.E. and Keena, M., 2011. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its hemlock hosts: a global perspective. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.
p 473 Black Fire Beetle “far greater infrared sensitivity than any human-made device”
Bousack, H., Kahl, T., Schmitz, A. and Schmitz, H. 2015. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies. Micromachines 6(6): 718-746.
p 475 “The quarter-century starting in 1990 produced a sweeping epidemic”
Countless recent papers address pine beetle epidemics. An outstanding compendium of contributions from many of the key figures in the field is:
Bentz, Barbara, et al. 2009. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences. Bark Beetle Symposium; Snowbird, Utah; Nov. 2005. Salt Lake City: U. of Utah Pr.
p 475 “At least three known mechanisms attribute [pine] beetle epidemics to climate change”
Weed, A.S., M.P. Ayres, and J.A. Hicke. 2013. Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests. Ecol. Monographs 83(4): 441-470.
Bentz, Barbara J., et al. 2010. Climate change and bark beetles of the western US and Canada: direct and indirect effects. BioScience 60(8): 602-613.
Littell, Jeremy S., et al. 2010. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in WA State, USA. Climatic change 102(1): 129-158.
Macias Fauria, Marc, and E. A. Johnson. 2009. Large‐scale climatic patterns and area affected by mountain pine beetle in BC, Canada. J. of Geoph. Res.: Biogeosciences 114.G1.
p 475 “Thinning pine forests apparently helps somewhat to keep them vigorous”
Black, S.H., D. Kulakowski, B.R. Noon, and D.A. DellaSala. 2013. Do bark beetle outbreaks increase wildfire risks in the central US Rocky Mountains? Natural Areas J. 33(1): 59-65.
p 475 “Cascades east slope has more trees attacked by western spruce budworm”
Meigs, Garrett W., et al. 2015. Spatiotemporal dynamics of recent mountain pine beetle and western spruce budworm outbreaks across the PNW Region, USA. Forest Ecol. and Mgmt. 339: 71-86.
p 475 “Whether beetle kill actually leads to more or worse fires… has received intense study.”
Meigs, Garrett W., et al. 2016. Do insect outbreaks reduce the severity of subsequent forest fires? Env. Res. Letters 11(4), p.045008.
Hart, Sarah J., et al. 2015. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci., 112(14): 4375-4380.
p 477 “forest populations (and species) exist, in areas with months of snow cover”
Huggard, D.J., and W. Klenner. 2003. Grylloblattids in Managed Forests of South-central BC. NW Science 77(1): 12-18.
p 478 “At last count there were 6 named species in the Northwest”
Schoville, Sean D. 2014. Current status of the systematics and evolutionary biology of Grylloblattidae (Grylloblattodea). Systematic Entomology 39(2): 197-204.
p 478 “They may ‘hide’ their approach by remaining in the same spot”
Mizutani, A., J.S. Chahl, and M.V. Srinivasan. 2003. Motion camouflage in dragonflies. Nature 423.6940: 604-604.
p 482 Aspen Leaf Miner “occasionally reaching pest levels”
Wagner, Diane, et al. 2008. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen. Oecologia 157(2): 259-267.
p 484 “trees may increase their tannin in response to an insect attack on a nearby tree”
Li, T., et al. 2012. Herbivore-induced aspen volatiles temporally regulate two different indirect defences in neighbouring plants. Funct. Ecol. 26: 1176–1185.
p 484 “finds northwestern populations to be a distinct species, S. ophthalmica.”
Schmidt B.C, and G.G. Anweiler GG. 2010. Taxonomic changes to Lepidoptera: Macro-moths. In: Pohl G.R, et al. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada. ZooKeys 38: 497–509.
p 486 A Guy Worth His Salt
Karlsson, Bengt. 1998. Nuptial gifts, resource budgets, and reproductive output in a polyandrous butterfly. Ecology 79(8): 2931‒40.
Molleman, Freerk, 2010. Puddling: from natural history to understanding how it affects fitness. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 134(2): 107-113.
Boggs, Carol L., and Birgitt Dau. 2004. Resource specialization in puddling Lepidoptera. Environmental Entomology 33(4): 1020-1024.
Smedley, Scott R., and Thomas Eisner. 1996. Sodium: a male moth’s gift to its offspring. Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. 93(2): 809-813.
p 488 “Guppy and Shepard find that early snowmelt can be deadly”
Guppy, Crispin S., and Jon H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Chapter: Other Creatures
p 501 “Lizard blood, in contrast, kills [Lyme disease] spirochetes.”
Lane, R.S., et al. 2006. Refractoriness of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii. J. of Parasitology 92(4): 691-696.
p 502 “many species of the genus Borrelia involved, producing overlapping but different symptoms”
Kingry, L.C., et al. 2016. Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of the Novel Lyme Borreliosis Causing Pathogen, Borrelia mayonii. PLoS One 11(12): p.e0168994.
Scott, John D. 2016. Borrelia mayonii: prying open Pandora’s box of spirochetes. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 16(6): 637.
p 503 “alternatively, [amputated slug penises] might be nutritious”
Reise, H. and Hutchinson, J.M., 2002. Penis-biting slugs: wild claims and confusions. Trends in ecology and evolution 17(4): 163-163.
p 503 “the Suiattle Glacier alone held 7 billion ice worms in 2002”
Pelto, Mauri. Ice Worms and Their Habitats on North Cascade Glaciers. (1/27/17)
p 503 “Giardia… the only microorganism we know to smile.”
Upcroft, Jacqui and Peter. 1998. My favorite cell: Giardia. BioEssays 20(3): 256–63.
p 503 “symptoms can linger long after the parasite is eliminated”
Robertson, L.J., et al. 2010. Giardiasis–why do the symptoms sometimes never stop? Trends in parasitology 26(2): 75-82.
p 503 “Scientists who looked for it in streams… didn’t find enough to worry about”
Zell, S.C. and Sorenson, S.K., 1993. Cyst acquisition rate for Giardia lamblia in backcountry travelers to Desolation Wilderness, Lake Tahoe. J. of Wilderness Medicine 4(2): 147-154.
p 503 “education efforts aimed at outdoor recreationists should place more emphasis on handwashing”
Welch, Timothy E. 2000. Risk of giardiasis from consumption of wilderness water in North America: A systematic review of epidemiologic data. Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases 4(2): 100-103.
p 504 “The often-heard claim that beavers are responsible for outbreaks in humans has, again, never been proven, and the scientific literature is increasingly skeptical”
Feng, Yaoyu, and Lihua Xiao. 2011. Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clinical microbiology reviews 24.1: 110-140.
Hunter, Paul R., and RC Andrew Thompson. 2005. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Intl. J. for parasitology 35(11): 1181-1190.
p 505 “Pink snow is harvested for use in cosmetics that claim to protect human skin”
Collins, Danica. 2015. Rejuvenate Skin with Red Snow Algae. (1/27/17)

Chapter: Geology
p 508-509 Geologic Map of the Pacific Northwest
The map was created by David Deis, Dreamline Cartography based roughly on:
Reed, J.C., Jr., Wheeler, J.O., and Tucholke, J.E. 2005. Geologic map of North America. Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, Decade of North American Geology.
Countless adjustments and simplifications were made, in consultation with the author, informed especially by the following:
Bustin, Amanda MM, et al. 2013. The southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia: new interpretations from geological, seismic reflection, and gravity data. Can. J. of Earth Sci. 50(10): 1033-1050.
Haugerud, Ralph Albert, and Rowland W. Tabor. 2009. Geologic map of the North Cascade Range, Washington. USDI, US Geological Survey.
Schuster, J.E., 2005. Geologic map of Washington state. Washington State Department of Natural Resources.
Miller, Marli. Geologic Map of Oregon.
p 510 “what melts rock at a subduction arc is thought to be the addition… of water”
Walowski, K.J., et al. 2016. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 446: 100-112.
p 511 “This effect is seen in our mountains. Mt. Olympus…”
Montgomery, David R. 2002. Valley formation by fluvial and glacial erosion. Geology 30(11): 1047-1050..
p 511 “The same mechanism tilts the North Cascades. Rock uplift…”
Reiners, Peter W., et al. 2003. Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades. Nature 426(6967): 645-647.
Simon-Labric, Thibaud, et al. 2014. Low-temperature thermochronologic signature of range-divide migration and breaching in the North Cascades. Lithosphere 6(6): 473-482.
p 512 “Mt. Rainier’s Osceola Mudflow event in 3600 BCE”
Hildreth, Wes. 2007. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades—Geologic Perspectives. Prof. Paper 1744, U.S.D.I. U.S. Geological Survey.
p 512 “a hundred times the volume of the largest lava flows of historic times”
Barry, T.L., et al. 2013. New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Grande Ronde lavas, Columbia River Basalts, USA: Implications for duration of flood basalt eruption episodes. Lithos 118, 213–222.
Thordarson, Thorvaldur, and Stephen Self. 1998. The Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Group: A gigantic pahoehoe lava flow field formed by endogenous processes? JGR: Solid Earth 103.B11: 27411-27445.
p 512 “The CRB may have been an earlier production of the Yellowstone Hot Spot.”
Hard to choose from the many papers on this. Here’s one that sees it all starting with the CRB:
Liu, Lijun, and Dave R. Stegman. 2012. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab. Nature 482.7385: 386-389.
And here’s one that starts it earlier, as the Siletzia basalt floods:
Wells, Ray, et al. 2014. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the OR and WA Coast Range: Correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot. Geosphere 10(4): 692-719.
And one that brings in the subsequent Wallowa uplift:
Darold, Amberlee, and Eugene Humphreys. 2013. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath the Pacific Northwest: A plume-triggered delamination origin for the Columbia River flood basalt eruptions. Earth and Planetary Sci. Letters 365: 232-242.
p 513 “Similar flows can originate without eruptive activity.”
Legg, N.T., et al. 2014. Debris flow initiation in proglacial gullies on Mount Rainier, WA. Geomorphology 226: 249-260.
p 513 “a strong correlation between mass extinctions and LIP eruptions”
Bond, David PG, and Paul B. Wignall. 2014. Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: an update. In Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geol. Soc. of Am. Spec. Paper 505, p. 29–55.
p 513 “Chicxulub meteor impact came while a LIP was active in India, and both…”
Keller, Gerta. 2014. Deccan volcanism, the Chicxulub impact, and the end-Cretaceous mass extinction: Coincidence? Cause and effect? In Keller, G., and Kerr, A.C., eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects: Geol. Soc. of Am. Spec. Paper 505.
p 514 Wrangellia “erupted flood basalts 220 million years ago”
Dostal, J., et al. 2011. Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation of Western Canada and Alaska: A Plume-Generated Oceanic Plateau Formed Along a Mid-Ocean Ridge Nucleated on a Late Paleozoic Active Margin. In Topics in Igneous Petrology (pp. 3-27). Springer Netherlands.
p 514 “question of how far it slid and when… is called the Baja BC controversy”
In general, geologists who place their faith in field study are skeptical of “Baja BC”, and those with faith in paleomagnetic study and seismic imaging favor it. For example:
Monger, J.W.H. 2014. Seeking the Suture: The Coast-Cascade Conundrum. Geoscience Canada 41(4): 379-398.
Colpron and Nelson (and many others) reject “Baja BC” in favor of relatively modest terrane motions in the Cretaceous, but they track very wide terrane wandering earlier on, before the terranes neared North America:
Colpron, Maurice, and Joanne L. Nelson. 2009. A Palaeozoic Northwest Passage: Incursion of Caledonian, Baltican and Siberian terranes…. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 318(1): 273-307.
Hypotheses supporting “Baja BC” have been nurtured for years by Stephen Johnston, among others, and recently reinvigorated by Karin Sigloch and by Robert Hildebrand.
Johnston, S.T. 2008. The Cordilleran ribbon continent of North America. Ann. Rev. Earth and Planetary Sci. 36: 495–530
Sigloch, Karin, and Mitchell G. Mihalynuk. 2013. Intra-oceanic subduction shaped the assembly of Cordilleran North America. Nature 496.7443: 50-56.
Hildebrand, Robert S., 2015. Dismemberment and northward migration of the Cordilleran orogen: Baja-BC resolved. GSA Today 25(11).
p 514 “The North Cascades are a beautiful mess of… small terranes”
Tabor, Rowland, and Ralph Haugerud. 1999. Geology of the North Cascades. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers.
Brown, E.H., 2012. Obducted nappe sequence in the San Juan Islands–northwest Cascades thrust system, WA and BC. Canadian J. Earth Sci. 49(7): 796-817.
p 514 “Soon after 46 million years ago it was pierced by Ancestral Cascades”
I should note that this mainstream view of several decades standing is questioned by some who doubt the Ancestral arc extended north of Snoqualmie Pass:
du Bray, Edward A., and David A. John. 2011. Petrologic, tectonic, and metallogenic evolution of the Ancestral Cascades magmatic arc. Geosphere 7(5): 1102-1133.
p 514 “Uplift slowed… then resumed greater speed from 10 million years ago on.”
Reiners, Peter W., et al. 2002. Late Miocene exhumation and uplift of the Washington Cascade Range. Geology 30(9): 767-770.
Farley, K.A., Rusmore, M.E., Bogue, S.W., 2001. Post-10 Ma uplift and exhumation of the northern Coast mountains, British Columbia. Geology 29, 99–102.
However, a somewhat later date, at least in the Rainier-to-Hood section, is argued by:
Mustoe, George E., and Estella B. Leopold. 2014. Paleobotanical evidence for the post-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range. Canadian J. of Earth Sci. 51(8): 809-824.
p 515 “Their current name, Coast Plutonic Complex, reflects the multiplicity”
Bustin, Amanda MM, et al. 2013. The southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia: new interpretations from geological, seismic reflection, and gravity data. Can. J. of Earth Sci. 50(10): 1033-1050.
p 515 “disagree about the timing of when the terranes sutured to North America.”
See the references, above, for p 514 Baja BC.
p 515 “This basaltic terrane, Siletzia, was an oceanic plateau bearing islands”
Wells, Ray, et al. 2014. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the OR and WA Coast Range: Correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot. Geosphere 10(4): 692-719.
p 515 “A Rotating Block”
McCaffrey, Robert, et al. 2013. Active tectonics of northwestern US inferred from GPS‐derived surface velocities. JGR: Solid Earth 118(2): 709-723.
p 516 “Originally at and close to sea level, flows were subsequently raised”
Mitchell, Sara, David Montgomery, and Harvey Greenberg. 2009. Erosional unloading, hillslope geometry, and the height of the Cascade Range, WA… Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34(8): 1108-1120.
Takeuchi, A., and P.B. Larson. 2005. Oxygen isotope evidence for the late Cenozoic development of an orographic rain shadow in eastern WA. Geology 33(4): 313-316.
p 516 “Kenji Satake… came up with the date, hour, and magnitude”
Satake, Kenji, et al. 1996. Time and size of a giant earthquake in Cascadia inferred from Japanese tsunami records of January, 1700. Nature 379: 246.
p 516 “thanks to years of dogged sleuthing by Brian Atwater”
Atwater, B., and E. Hemphill-Haley. 1997. Recurrence intervals for great earthquakes of the past 3500 years at NE Willapa Bay, WA. USGS Prof. Paper 1576.
p 517 “Intervals between great subduction quakes have varied widely”
Kulkarni, R., Wong, I., Zachariasen, J., Goldfinger, C. and Lawrence, M., 2013. Statistical analyses of great earthquake recurrence along the Cascadia subduction zone. Bull. of the Seismological Soc. of Am. 103(6): 3205-3221.
Goldfinger, Chris, et al. 2012. Turbidite event history: Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 1661-F.
p 517 “Seattle had a magnitude 7.5 quake on its very own Seattle Fault.”
Bucknam, Robert C., Eileen Hemphill-Haley, and Estella B. Leopold. 1992. Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at southern Puget Sound, Washington. Science 258: 1611-1614.
Haugerud, Ralph A., et al. 2003. High-resolution lidar topography of the Puget Lowland, WA. GSA Today 13(6): 4-10.
p 525 “Wes Hildreth identified this tuff-filled caldera and named it Kulshan Caldera.”
Hildreth, W. 1996. Kulshan caldera—A Quaternary subglacial caldera in the North Cascades, WA. GSA Bulletin. 108(7): 794-814.